Events, birthdays and anniversaries on 4 April
National Day of Hungary.
1618: Cardinal Richelieu was ordered into exile in Avignon for intrigues with France’s Queen Mother Marie de Medici.
1660: King Charles II issued Declaration of Breda, promising religious tolerance.
1844: Germany occupied South-West Africa, Togoland and Cameroons.
1904: Britain and France signed the Entente Cordiale, a mutual recognition of each other’s colonial interests.
1905: An earthquake in Lahore, India, killed 10,000.
1912: Chinese republic was proclaimed in Tibet.
1918: Second Battle of the Somme ended.
1919: Soviet republic was established in Bavaria.
1924: BBC broadcast the first radio programmes for schools.
1932: Scientists at Pittsburgh isolated vitamin C.
1933: United States navy helium-filled dirigible Akron fell into Atlantic off New Jersey in storm, with the loss of 73 lives.
1934: The first cat’s eye road studs – the invention of Percy Shaw – were installed near Bradford.
1942: Japanese naval forces sank three British warships in Bay of Bengal.
1949: The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation was created by United States, Britain, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Italy, Portugal, Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Canada.
1958: The first protest march by Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament left Hyde Park Corner, London, for Aldermaston.
1959: Ivory Coast signed series of agreements with Niger, Upper Volta and Dahomey to form Sahel-Benin Union.
1964: Archbishop Makarios abrogated 1960 treaty among Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, and heavy fighting erupted in northwest Cyprus.
1969: Doctors in Houston hospital, Texas, implanted first complete artificial heart in 47-year-old man, who died four days later.
1981: Brixton riots erupted between young blacks and police in south London. Arrests totalled 213 and injured 210.
1981: Bob Champion won the Grand National on Aldaniti.
1988: The soap opera Crossroads ended on television, after 4,510 episodes, the first having been shown in December, 1964.
1990: Doctor Raymond Crockett was struck off the medical register for selling kidneys for transplant operations.
1991: Nine Orkney children taken into care on 27 February amid allegations of child sex abuse, were returned to their families after ruling by Sheriff David Kelbie in Inverness.
1991: Iran’s official news agency said over one million Kurds were massed along the Iran-Iraq border trying to escape Iraqi troops who were reportedly killing them as they fled.
1995: Keith Schellenberg, former owner of Eigg, left the island under police protection after selling it to German artist Marlin Eckhard Maruma.
2008: In a raid on the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints’ YFZ Ranch in Texas, 401 children and 133 women were taken into custody.