EVENTS, birthdays and anniversaries on 29 October.
National Day of Turkey.
1618: English explorer and courtier Sir Walter Raleigh was beheaded at the Palace of Westminster for allegedly conspiring against King James I of England (James VI of Scotland).
1682: William Pernn landed at Chester, Pennsylvania.
1787: Mozart’s opera Don Giovanni was first performed, in Prague.
1859: Spain declared war on Morocco.
1863: Swiss philanthropist Henri Dunant founded the International Red Cross.
1889: Queen Victoria granted Cecil Rhodes the rights to Zambezia, a province of Mozambique.
1929: “Black Tuesday” - so-called when Wall Street crashed, leading to the Great Depression.
1945: The first ballpoint pen went on sale – 45 years after it was patented.
1947: The Benelux union was formed by Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg.
1956: Israel invaded the Sinai Peninsula and troops pushed on towards the Suez Canal, just 20 miles away.
1958: Boris Pasternak refused to accept the Nobel Prize for literature.
1960: Cassius Clay, who would later change his name to Muhammad Ali, won his first professional fight against Tunney Hunsacker.
1964: A collection of gems, including the 565 carat (113g) Star of India, were stolen by thieves from the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.
1967: London criminal Jack McVitie was murdered by the Kray twins, leading to their eventual imprisonment.
1969: The first-ever computer-to-computer link is established on ARPANET, the precursor to the internet.
1983: More than half-a-million people demonstrated against cruise missiles in The Hague, Netherlands.
1985: Lester Piggott rode Full Choke at Nottingham to record his 4,349th winner. This was thought to be the end of his career in Britain - he eventually retired in 1995.
1986: The final section of the M25 motorway around London was opened by prime minister Margaret Thatcher.
1987: Thomas “Hit Man” Hearns won the world middleweight title, making him the first boxer to win a world title at four different weights.
1991: The American Galileo spacecraft made its closest approach to 951 Gaspra, becoming the first probe to visit an asteroid.
1994: A man was arrested outside the White House in Washington after spraying the building with automatic gunfire while Bill Clinton, the president, watched television inside.
1995: Orkney police started an investigation after 25 grey seal pups were found shot near Burwick on South Ronaldsay.
1998: A fire at The Gothenburg nightclub in Sweden claimed 63 lives and injured 200.
2004: In Rome, European heads of state signed the Treaty and Final Act to establish the first European Constitution.
2008: Delta Air Lines merged with Northwest Airlines to create the world’s largest airline.
2012: Publishing companies Penguin and Random House merged to form the world’s largest publisher.
Yasmin Le Bon, model, 51; Richard Dreyfuss, actor, 68; Ian Durrant, Scottish football coach and former player, 49; Robert Hardy CBE, actor and writer, 90; Kate Jackson, actress, 67; Winona Ryder, actress, 44; Rufus Sewell, actor, 48; Michael Vaughan OBE, former England cricket captain, 41; Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, president of Liberia and first female premier of an African country, 77; Lee Child, thriller writer, 61; Amanda Beard, Olympic champion swimmer, 34; Randy Jackson, singer and musician (member of The Jacksons), 54; Peter Green, musician, founder of Fleetwood Mac, 69.
Births: 1650 David Calderwood,Scottish historian; 1656 Edmund Halley, astronomer; 1740 James Boswell, Edinburgh-born diarist and biographer of Samuel Johnson; 1897 Joseph Goebbels, Hitler’s propaganda minister.
Deaths: 1618 Sir Walter Raleigh, seafarer; 1911 Joseph Pulitzer, American newspaper publisher; 1924 Frances Burnett, novelist and dramatist; 1957 Louis B Mayer, film producer; 2011 Jimmy Savile, media personality.