1854: United States Republican Party established in Wisconsin.
1859: Queensland, Australia, became a colony in its own right, separate from New South Wales.
1875: Institute of Bankers in Scotland formed – the first such body in the world.
1885: Louis Pasteur successfully treated a subject with anti-rabies vaccine.
1912: Fifth Olympic Games opened in Stockholm.
1916: David Lloyd-George was appointed War Secretary.
1919: The first transatlantic flight by an airship, from East Fortune, East Lothian to Mineola, New York, took 108 hours.
1923: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was formed.
1928: The first all-talking feature film, Lights Of New York, opened in America.
1942: Ann Frank’s family went into hiding in Amsterdam.
1946: The Young Conservatives’ was founded.
1950: The frontier between East Germany and Poland was declared the Oder-Neisse Line.
1964: Malawi, formerly Nyasaland, became an independent state within the Commonwealth, having been a British protectorate since 1891.
1967: Civil war began in Nigeria.
1968: Billie Jean King became Wimbledon Women’s Singles champion.
1988: 167 workers died in the Piper Alpha oil platform explosion in the North Sea.
1989: Time and date digits were in sequence at 01.23.45 6-7-89. This would not happen again for 100 years.
1989: Collett’s bookshop in Charing Cross Road, London, was fire-bombed in protest at sale of Salman Rushdie’s novel The Satanic Verses.
1991: United Nations nuclear inspection team arrived in Iraq to test President Saddam Hussein’s promise of full co-operation, while second team witnessed destruction of Iraq’s last known long-range missiles.
2003: The Eupatoria Planetary Radar sent messages to five stars; the message sent to the furthest will arrive in 2049.
2006: The Nathula Pass between India and China, sealed during the Sino-Indian War, reopened for trade after 44 years.
Dalai Lama (born Tenzin Gyatso), exiled Tibetan leader, 80; Vladimir Ashkenazy, Russian-Icelandic pianist and conductor, 78; George W Bush, 43rd US president (2001-9), 69; Geraldine James OBE, actress, 65; John Makepeace OBE, designer and furniture maker, 76; Dame Mary Peters DBE, Olympic pentathlon champion and athletics administrator, 76; Sir Jonathon Porritt CBE, 2nd Baronet, environmentalist and writer, 65; Nancy Reagan, actress, former US first lady, 94; Geoffrey Rush, actor, 64; Jennifer Saunders, actress and writer, 57; Eva Green, actress, 35; 50 Cent (Curtis James Jackson II), rapper, 40; Sylvester Stallone, actor, 69; Kate Nash, singer-songwriter, 28.
Births: 1747 John Paul Jones, Scottish-born American naval commander; 1755 John Flaxman, Wedgwood pottery designer; 1755 Alexander Wilson, Scottish poet, ornithologist and naturalist; 1781 Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, British statesman and founder of city of Singapore; 1785 Sir William Jackson Hooker, British botanist; 1868 Princess Victoria of Wales, daughter of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra; 1887 Marc Chagall, artist; 1890 Andy Sandham, English cricketer, first player to score a triple Test century; 1906 Elizabeth Lutyens, composer; 1925 Bill Haley, rock’n’roll musician; 1925 Merv Griffin, TV host, media mogul and creator of TV game shows; 1927 Janet Leigh, actress; 1936 Dave Allen, Irish comedian; 1939 Jet Harris (born Terence Harris) MBE, musician (The Shadows); 1947 Richard Beckinsale, actor.
Deaths: 1189 King Henry II of England; 1535 Sir Thomas More, statesman and Lord Chancellor (executed for high treason); 1553 King Edward VI of England and Ireland; 1813 Granville Sharp, English abolitionist; 1932 Kenneth Grahame, author of Wind in the Willows; 1946 Horace Pippin, African-American painter; 1950 Fats Navarro, jazz musician and pioneer of bebop; 1960 Aneurin Bevan, politician responsible for National Health Service; 1962 William Faulkner, Nobel Prize-winning author; 1971 Louis Armstrong, jazz trumpeter and singer; 1973 Joe E Brown, actor and comedian; 1979 Van McCoy, singer-songwriter and record producer; 1993 Ruth Roche, Baroness Fermoy OBE, grandmother of Diana, Princess of Wales; 1994 Cameron Mitchell, actor (The High Chaparral); 1998 Roy Rogers, singer and cowboy actor; 2003 Kathleen Raine, poet; 2003 Buddy Ebsen, actor and dancer; 2005 Claude Simon, Nobel Prize-winning author; 2006 Tom Weir MBE, Scottish climber, author and broadcaster (Weir’s Way).