Feast of St Andrew. Patron Saint of Scotland.
1652: Dutch defeated English fleet off Dungeness.
1782: Americans and British signed preliminary peace articles in Paris, ending American Revolutionary War.
1872: Scotland and England drew 0-0 in first football international, at Partick.
1913: Charlie Chaplin made his film debut in Mack Sennett’s Making a Living.
1918: Transylvania proclaimed union with Romania.
1926: Sigmund Romberg’s operetta The Desert Song opened in New York.
1931: His Master’s Voice and Columbia merged as Electrical and Musical Industries (EMI).
1936: Crystal Palace, built of glass and iron for the Great Exhibition of 1851, was burned down on the site in Sydenham to which it had been moved in 1854.
1938: Members of Romanian Iron Guard were shot as government attempted to destroy Fascism.
1944: Britain’s largest and last battleship, Vanguard, was launched at Clydebank. It had taken three years to build.
1955: First floodlit football match played at Wembley, between England and Spain.
1956: Floyd Patterson, at 21, became the youngest boxer to win the world heavyweight championship. He knocked out Archie Moore in Chicago (Mike Tyson later broke the age record).
1962: U Thant of Burma was elected secretary general of United Nations.
1966: Full independence was proclaimed in Barbados.
1967: British troops left Aden after 128 years as People’s Republic of South Yemen was proclaimed.
1986: Admiral John Poindexter resigned as President Ronald Reagan’s national security adviser and Lieutenant-Colonel Oliver North quit the White House staff in wake of “Contra-gate” scandal, a plot to sell arms to Iran to release hostages there, and illegally support the right-wing Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
1987: Iraqi aircraft bombed two power plants in western Iran.
1989: Lord Aldington received a record £1.5million libel damages after wrongly being branded a war criminal by historian Count Nikolai Tolstoy and Nigel Watts.
1989: The government admitted it failed to disclose a £38 million payment to help British Aerospace take over the Rover group.
1990: President George H Bush offered to send secretary of state James Baker to Iraq for talks with Saddam Hussein.
1995: BBC lost live coverage of the English FA Cup final to ITV in a £130 million deal involving Sky TV.
1995: Official end of Operation Desert Storm.
1996: The Stone of Destiny, returned to Scotland, was installed at Edinburgh Castle.
1999: British Aerospace and Marconi Electronic Systems merged to form BAE Systems, Europe’s largest defence contractor.
2005: John Sentamu became the first black archbishop in the Church of England with his enthronement as the 97th Archbishop of York.
2011: Tens of thousands of people joined rallies around the UK as a public sector went on strike over pensions.
Births: 1628 John Bunyan, preacher and author of The Pilgrim’s Progress; 1667 Jonathan Swift, clergyman and writer; 1835 Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens), author and humourist; 1874 Sir Winston Churchill, prime minister 1940-5 and 1951-5; 1924 Charles Hawtrey, actor.
Deaths: 1900 Oscar Wilde, poet and dramatist; 1957 Beniamino Gigli, operatic tenor; 1972 Sir Compton Mackenzie, author; 1977 Sir Terence Rattigan, playwright; 1979 Joyce Grenfell, actress and entertainer; 1986 Cary Grant, film actor; 2001 George Harrison, Beatles guitarist.