1585: English shipping in Spanish ports was confiscated, which served as declaration of war on England.
1802: The French Legion of Honour, an order of distinction for civil or military service, was created by Napoleon.
1849: An attempt to assassinate Queen Victoria was made by William Hamilton, an unemployed bricklayer, who fired a pistol at her. Hamilton pleaded guilty at his trial and received the maximum sentence of seven years of penal transportation.
1897: Armistice was signed in Greece-Turkey War.
1900: Britain annexed Tonga, the Friendly Islands, in south Pacific.
1906: The 20-kilometre Simplon rail tunnel, between Switzerland and Italy, was officially opened.
1912: Aeroplane international registration numbers were introduced.
1930: White women were enfranchised in South Africa.
1939: Sandy Macpherson presented the first British radio request programme, From My Post-bag.
1945: More than 40 United States Superfortress bombers attacked Tokyo, Japan.
1971: Canada’s prime minister, Pierre Trudeau, and Soviet premier, Alexei Kosygin, signed agreement in Moscow to establish regular high-level contacts.
1973: Soviet Union and West Germany signed ten-year agreement calling for economic, industrial and technical co-operation.
1973: Royal Navy frigates entered the Icelandic 50-mile limit after friction between British trawlers and Icelandic gunboats.
1981: Five soldiers were killed in IRA ambush in Newry, Northern Ireland.
1989: A frame with locks of Mozart’s and Beethoven’s hair was sold at Sotheby’s for £11,000.
1990: In an attempt to calm fears about “mad cow disease”, the agriculture minister, John Gummer, bought a £1.60 beefburger and fed it to his four-year-old daughter, after first eating one himself and declaring it “delicious”.
1992: It was announced that more than 200 police officers investigated over allegations of malpractice in the West Midlands force would not face prosecution.
1993: Three former detectives were cleared by an Old Bailey jury of fabricating confessions in the Guildford Four pub bombings case.
1994: Robert Black was given ten life sentences after being found guilty of murdering three girls, Susan Maxwell, Caroline Hogg and Sarah Harper.
1995: Anthony Williams, self-styled Laird of Tomintoul and deputy director of finance at the Metropolitan Police, jailed for seven-and-a-half years for stealing £5.3 million. He spent most of the money on buying and renovating properties in the Banffshire village of Tomintoul.
2009: Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin announced that he was to step down, a decision which effectively made him the first Speaker to be forced out of office for 300 years. Martin had faced criticism over his handling of the MP expenses issue.
2010: Scotland’s finance secretary, John Swinney, vowed to freeze Council Tax until 2012.
2012: Hearts defeated Hibs 5-1 at Hampden Park in the first all-Edinburgh Scottish Cup final for 116 years.
Pete Townshend, guitarist and singer (The Who), 70; Dr Edward de Bono, Maltese-born lateral-thinking pioneer, 82; Amanda de Cadenet, actress, 43; Lily Cole, model and actress, 27; James Fox OBE, actor, 76; Grace Jones, singer and actress, 67; Robert Kilroy-Silk, broadcaster and MP 1974-1986, 73; Paul Moriarty, actor, 69; Stephen Varcoe, British baritone, 66; Victoria Wood CBE, comedienne and writer, 62; Andrea Pirlo, footballer, 36; Diego Forlan, footballer, 36; Chris Chittell, actor, 67.
Births: 1879 Lady Astor, first woman to sit in House of Commons; 1890 Ho Chi-Minh, Vietnamese leader; 1896 Wallis Warfield, Duchess of Windsor; 1914 Sandy Wilson, composer (The Boy Friend), lyric writer and playwright; 1925 Malcolm Little (Malcolm X), civil rights leader; 1926 David Jacobs CBE, broadcaster; 1931 Mark Boxer, cartoonist; 1932 Alma Cogan, singer; 1941 Nora Ephron, journalist, screenwriter and director.
Deaths: AD988 St Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury; 1536 Anne Boleyn, second wife of Henry VIII; 1795 James Boswell, diarist and biographer of Doctor Johnson; 1864 Nathaniel Hawthorne, novelist; 1898 William Ewart Gladstone, four times Liberal prime minister; 1935 Thomas Edward Lawrence, Lawrence of Arabia; 1935 Charles Loeffler, composer; 1954 Charles Ives, composer; 1971 Ogden Nash, “nonsense” poet; 1984 Sir John Betjeman, writer and Poet Laureate; 2000 Sir John Gielgud, actor and director.