574: John II ended his reign as Catholic Pope.
1174: William I of Scotland was captured at Alnwick by forces loyal to Henry II of England.
1249: Alexander III crowned at Scone.
1469: James III of Scotland married Margaret of Denmark at Holyrood Abbey.
1568: The dean of St Paul’s Cathedral perfected a way to bottle beer.
1772: Captain James Cook began his second voyage aboard Resolution to search for Terra Australis (the southern continent).
1820: First day of the trial, held in Stirling, of the Radicals captured at the Battle of Bonnymuir, charged with treason. John Baird and Andrew Hardie were subsequently executed.
1837: Queen Victoria became the first monarch to live in the present-day Buckingham Palace.
1868: Scotch Reform Act was passed, creating seven additional Scottish seats in the House of Commons at the expense of English ones, and giving the vote to all male householders.
1908: The fourth Olympic Games opened in London.
1919: The British dirigible R34 arrived in Norfolk after the first transatlantic round flight, having left East Fortune, in East Lothian, on 2 July.
1923: The “Hollywoodland” sign above Hollywood was officially dedicated. The last four letters dropped off in 1949.
1930: The first World Cup football tournament began in Uruguay. Thirteen countries took part and Uruguay beat Argentina 4-2 in the final.
1933: All political parties were banned in Germany, except the Nazis.
1955: Ruth Ellis, the last woman to be executed in Britain, was hanged at Hollowat Prison, London.
1972: A series of shootings and gun battles erupted across Belfast between the Provisional IRA and British Army soldiers.
1985: Live Aid pop concerts in Britain and America raised more than £50 million for famine victims in Africa.
1990: Wallace Mercer, the Hearts chairman, dropped his £6.1 million takeover bid for Hibernian.
2007: The BBC apologised to the Queen after admitting that a promotional trailer for a television programme appeared to show that she had stormed off in a huff from a shoot with American photographer Annie Leibovitz.
2011: Mumbai, India was rocked by three bomb blasts during the evening rush hour, killing 26 people and injuring 130.
2012: Scottish Football League clubs voted in favour of a newco Rangers football club playing in Division Three.