On this day: Bush and Gorbachev declared Cold War over

EVENTS, birthdays, anniversaries

In 1989, US president George Bush and Soviet president  Mikhail Gorbachev declared that the Cold War was over. Picture: AFP/Getty Images
In 1989, US president George Bush and Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev declared that the Cold War was over. Picture: AFP/Getty Images

741: St Zachary began his reign as Catholic pope, succeeding Gregory III.

1557: Signing of the Common or Godly Band by the Earls of Argyll, Glencairn and Morton and others, the “Lords of the Congregation”, the first manifesto of the Reformation in Scotland.

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1694: Triennial Bill became law in England, providing for new parliament to be elected every third year.

1808: Madrid surrendered to Napoleon Bonaparte’s French forces.

1828: Andrew Jackson was elected as the seventh US president.

1836: Three people were killed at Great Corby, near Carlisle, in the first fatal railway derailment.

1906: Her Majesty’s Theatre in Aberdeen opened.

1909: King Edward VII dissolved Parliament, and taxes on beer, spirits, tobacco and cars were lifted because no budget had been passed.

1926: Crime novelist Agatha Christie mysteriously disappeared for 11 days.

1931: Alka Seltzer went on sale for the first time.

1944: The Home Guard “stood down” with a parade of 7,000 in Hyde Park, London.

1947: The audience cheered for 30 minutes when A Streetcar Named Desire, with Marlon Brando as Stanley Kowalski, opened on Broadway.

1948: Don Bradman scored his last century – 123 in his final innings) – when more than 94,000 people turned up to watch his testimonial match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground.

1958: Dutch businesses were nationalised in Indonesia.

1965: The Beatles began their last UK tour with a concert at the Odeon cinema, Glasgow.

1967: Dr Christiaan Barnard of South Africa performed the world’s first human heart transplant operation. The recipient, 53-year-old Louis Washkansky, lived for 18 days.

1971: India invaded West Pakistan, sparking the Indo-Pakistan War, which lasted for 14 days.

1979: Eleven fans were trampled to death during a Who concert in Cincinnati.

1984: About 2,500 were reported dead and several thousand blinded after poisonous cyanide gas leaked from Union Carbide pesticide factory at Bhopal in central India.

1988: Edwina Currie said on television that most of Britain’s egg production was affected by salmonella.

1989: US president George Bush and Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev declared that the Cold War was over.

1990: Russian parliament voted to allow private ownership of land for the first time since the Bolshevik Revolution.

1992: Two IRA bombs exploded in Manchester. Sixty-four people were taken to hospital.

1995: Stephen Dorrell, The health secretary, said there was “no conceivable risk” of people being infected with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the human form of BSE, from eating beef.


Births: 1368 Charles VI, king of France; 1753 Samuel Crompton, inventor of spinning-mule which revolutionised cotton industry; 1755 Gilbert Stuart, portrait painter; 1795 Sir Rowland Hill KCB, social reformer who introduced the postage stamp; 1820 Thomas Beecham, inventor of Beecham’s pills; 1838 Octavia Hill, philanthropist; 1857 Joseph Conrad, writer; 1872 Jack Judge, music hall entertainer who wrote It’s A Long Way to Tipperary; 1875 Max Meldrum, Scottish painter; 1884 Rajendra Prasad, first president of India; 1895 Anna Frued, psychoanalyst; 1897 Kate O’Brien, Irish novelist and playwright; 1905 Leslie Ames CBE, England Test cricketer; 1914 Irving Fine, composer; 1923 1927 Andy Williams, singer; 1923 Trevor Bailey, England Test cricketer, writer and broadcaster; 1949 John Akii-Bue, world record-breaking and Olympic champion hurdler; 1952 Mel Smith, comedian, Nicky Stevens, singer (Brotherhood of Man), 63.

Deaths: 311AD, Diocletian, Roman emperor; 1154 Pope Anastasius IV; 1882 Archibald Campbell Tait, Edinburgh-born Archbishop of canterbury; 1888 Carl Zeiss, lens-maker, founder of Carl Zeiss Jena; 1894 Robert Louis Stevenson, author; 1910 Mary Baker Eddy, founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist; 1919 Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French Impressionist painter; 1926 Charles Ringling, circus owner; 1935 Princess Victoria of Wales, daughter of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra; 1976 Mary Nash, actress; 1991 Alex Graham, Scottish cartoonist, creator of Fred Bassett; 1980 Sir Oswald Mosley, leader of British Union of Fascists; 1995 Jimmy Jewel, comedian and actor; 1999 Madeline Kahn, actress; 2003 David Hemmings, actor, director; 2009 Richard Todd, British actor and soldier.