Behind The Shutter, which opens on Friday, features highlights from the museum's collection of more than 18,000 photographs, covering all aspects of the industry in Scotland.
It marks the completion of a three-year project to convert the museum's complete collection of photographic prints into digital form.
Fergus Waters, the museum's director, said: "This means that the museum's photographic collection is now more usable and more accessible.
"It not only makes research easier, it also makes it easier for us to meet requests from the general public for copies of the photographs – many of which will bring back poignant memories to people with a past connection to coal mining."
Visitors can view any image in the database by using a touchscreen computer in the main reception area. A selection of more than 2,000 photographs are also on the museum's website.