As many as 10,000 military personnel are expected to take part in a major UK-led military exercise in Scotland.
The major training exercise, known as Joint Warrior, takes place twice a year and includes personnel from a host of major Nato countries, including France, Spain, Nordic countries, and the United States.
Navy exercises, involving warships and submarines, will be based largely on the Clyde.
Training for the exercise which takes place in Autumn and Spring each year, will be held in the North of Scotland, with Typhoon aircraft from RAF Lossiemouth in Moray expected to form part of the operation.
The Ministry of Defence is expected to again use Artificial Intelligence (AI) equipment in the operations, which was first introduced in the exercise in 2017.
Live firing exercises are expected to form part of the operation, at ranges such as Cape Wrath in the Highlands.