The record figure, counted in March, is 1,175 higher than when the SNP came to power at Holyrood in 2007.
It keeps the Scottish Government on target to meet its pledge of 1,000 extra officers by 2011.
Justice secretary Kenny MacAskill welcomed the figures but Labour warned that looming public spending cuts would make it hard to maintain the higher levels.
Officer numbers increased by 136 in the past quarter, giving an annual rise of 361.
The number of officers employed in the Lothian and Borders Police force exceeded 3,000 for the first time, rising from 2,928 to 3,009 in a year, the statistics showed.
Mr MacAskill said: "The Scottish Government pledged to deliver a more visible police presence in our communities, which is why we committed ourselves to increasing the number of police officers by 1,000 by the end of this Parliament."