He said the concept would ensure that economic development, such as energy policies, are linked to human rights.
Mr Salmond said: “It is vitally important that, as the world moves towards economic recovery in 2012, we place climate justice at the very heart of the decisions we make on energy policy.
“I believe we have a once-in-a-generation opportunity to enshrine this important principle – that economic development should be linked to human rights – in global energy policy, ensuring that countries and communities least able to cope with the extreme weather events [that] climate change brings are not further disadvantaged.”
Dr Richard Dixon, director of environmental group WWF Scotland, welcomed the comments and said: “It is those countries least responsible for pollution that currently face the greatest threats from climate change. This climate injustice means it is only right that developed countries like Scotland take the lead in cutting emissions.
“The First Minister has rightly embraced renewables as one way Scotland can play its part in tackling climate change. However, if Scotland is to fully pay its way, the First Minister must also embrace steps that will slash emissions from road transport and poorly insulated homes.”