The charge comes after a 15-year-old boy was taken to Ninewells Hospital in Dundee at around 10pm on Friday.
He had begun to feel unwell during a night out.
Three of his friends were also taken to Perth Royal Infirmary and were later discharged.
Officers said they were looking into the possibility that all four boys may have taken a type of ecstasy tablet.
A Police Scotland spokesman said: “Police Scotland can confirm that a 17-year-old from the Perth area has been charged in relation to drugs offences following an incident in Perth over the weekend.”