Alexandra Stuart was taken to hospital following the incident in the Cuddyside area of the Borders town at about 11.20am on Sunday.
The 22-year-old, from Peebles, died in Edinburgh Royal Infirmary that evening.
Nicholas Rogers, 26, was charged with murder and assault when he appeared at Selkirk Sheriff Court yesterday.
He also faced a charge under the Police and Fire Reform (Scotland) Act 2012.
He did not enter a plea and was remanded in custody.
Tributes were paid to a “beautiful young woman” after Ms Stuart’s death as friends took to social media to pass on their condolences to her family.
Chelsea Yardley said: “No words, such a cruel world we live in another gone far too soon.
“RIP beautiful girl, I’ll never forget the memories we made and the laughs you brought to my life, rest easy little beaner.”
Jacquie Czarny posted: “My daughter and son went to school with Alex and I’m so sad to hear this news. There are no words. My heart goes out to her family and friends.”
Nicola Blair wrote: “Such a beautiful young woman. My thoughts and condolences go out to her family and friends. No one deserves this. Rest in peace sweetheart, sleep tight.”
Sophie Hamilton said: “Heartbreaking and a terrible waste of a life. Such a vibrant, beautiful, friendly girl.”
And Michael Jewitt added: “Rip Alex, such a genuine and buzzing lassie, you’ll be sorely missed. Thoughts are with your family and pals.”
Officers are urging people who may have information about the incident to come forward.
Detective Inspector Paul Batten of Galashiels CID said: “This is a tragic incident which has ended in the loss of a young life. Our thoughts and condolences are with the young woman’s family and they currently being supported by specially trained officers.
“We are keen to speak to anyone with information that can assist our enquiries.”
He added: “I would ask anyone who was in the vicinity of Cuddyside in Peebles on the morning of Sunday, 6 August, and saw anything that will aid our investigation to get in touch with us as soon as possible.”
Anyone with information is asked to contact officers at Galashiels CID on 101 or anonymously through Crimestoppers on 0800 555 111.