Several emergency service vehicles remain at the scene after emergency services were called to a block of flats just after 5:20am.
The building was evacuated following the fire, with one man taken to hospital for treatment.
The road is currently closed in both directions with emergency services still on the scene..
A Police Scotland spokesperson said: "Around 5.23am on Sunday, 5 December, officers were called to attend Broughton Street, Edinburgh to assist emergency colleagues after a fire broke out within a block of flats.
"The building was evacuated and one man was taken by ambulance to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh for treatment.
"The road remains closed at this time."
Four fire vehicles attended the scene according to an eyewitness who contacted the Edinburgh Evening News.
There is no timescale on when the road may reopen.