The body of the woman was found in a flat in the city’s Union Terrace at around 1:10pm on Friday.
Detectives have urged people to remain vigilant and follow safety advice after revealing that one line of inquiry suggests that the woman may have been involved in prostitution.
A major investigation is now under way, with officers carrying out door-to-door inquiries and reviewing CCTV footage.
Detective Superintendent David McLaren, from Police Scotland’s major investigation team, appealed for information from the public.
Mr McLaren, who is leading the inquiry, said: “A priority for us is establishing the woman’s recent movements, identify who she may have been in contact with and ultimately determine what happened to her prior to her being found on Friday afternoon.
“Investigations are at a very early stage however a line of inquiry at this time is the suggestion that the woman may have been involved in prostitution and as such Police Scotland is actively engaging with support groups nationally.
“I am appealing for anyone who may have any information that would assist us with our inquiry to speak to us. We would ask that people remain vigilant and follow personal safety advice.”
Police said no further details about the woman would be released until all next of kin have been informed and formal identification completed.
Mr McLaren added: “There is no doubt that this incident will raise concerns in Aberdeen and the wider community but I would like to take this opportunity to reassure the public that a significant police investigation has commenced and all efforts will be made to trace the person or people responsible.
“We want to reassure the community that there will be a visible police presence in the area as we continue with our inquiries into this incident.”