The star who plays stuttering monarch King George VI was nominated for best actor in a motion picture drama.
The film was nominated for best motion picture drama and there were also nods for Helena Bonham Carter and Geoffrey Rush in the best supporting actress and best supporting actor categories respectively.
The Globes, presented by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association (HFPA), are often seen as a guide to later Oscar success.
Firth said: "I'm truly grateful to be recognised by the Hollywood Foreign press for this film, and euphoric to be in the company of so many of my colleagues."
Bonham Carter, who plays Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, said she thought it would lead to Oscar success. "I've had a Golden Globe nomination and didn't get an Oscar nomination. But I presume Colin will get one, and I presume Colin will win."