While Scotland suffered a 3-2 defeat in the friendly game, Westminster City Council said it triumphed over litter, as well as finding “one or two weary Scotsmen” still in the square this morning.
The council began the clean-up operation at 6.30pm yesterday with a team of 20 workers, and it was being completed at 8.30am this morning - clearing an estimated two tonnes of beer cans.
Trucks that hold 18 tonnes of rubbish, street sweepers and small cleaning buggies were all involved in the operation.
The two teams met for the first time this century at Wembley Stadium last night, and thousands of Scotland supporters travelled to London for the match.
Washing-up liquid was added to the water in the fountains as the supporters spent the day partying.
The Metropolitan Police said there were two arrests at the match - one for drunk and disorderly behaviour and the other for public disorder.
A fan was also arrested for drunkenly dancing naked in a fountain in Trafalgar Square yesterday afternoon.
Leith Penny, Westminster City Council’s strategic director for city management, said: “This was one almighty clean-up. Our crews worked hard round the clock to get London back to normal for our residents and businesses this morning.
“I’m glad to say it is Westminster 1, litter 0.”
One council official added: “It was nice to vanquish the auld enemy of litter, and we even found one or two weary Scotsman in the square this morning.”
Around 25,000 Scottish fans were in London to see the game, and crowds of more than 2,500 had swarmed the central London hotspot by lunchtime.
The fixture, a friendly to help celebrate the Football Association’s 150th anniversary, was the first time the countries had met in 14 years.
Two people were taken to hospital with head injuries after paramedics were called to Trafalgar Square, London Ambulance Service (LAS) said.
An LAS spokeswoman said they were told there had been a ‘’fall from heights’’ in the area of Nelson’s Column.
A man in his 40s, suffering from head injuries and back pain, was taken to St Thomas’s Hospital ‘’as a priority’’, the spokeswoman said.
A second man, who was less seriously injured, was admitted to the same hospital.
Four other people were treated at the scene for injuries but did not need to be taken to hospital.
The LAS could not confirm if those involved were Scotland supporters.