Events, birthdays and anniversaries on 4 June
1694: The Merchant Maiden Hospital, later to be known as The Mary Erskine School, was founded by Mary Erskine in the Cowgate, Edinburgh.
1805: The first Trooping the Colour took place at Horse Guards Parade, London.
1832: The Great Reform Bill, an electoral measure which disenfranchised rotten boroughs, became law.
1940: Winston Churchill made his war-time rallying speech to the nation: “We shall defend our island whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets. We shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.”
1940: The evacuation of Dunkirk, which had begun on May 27 was completed. Thousands of little ships, under heavy German attack, returned to the English south coast with 338,226 soldiers.
1942: Battle of Midway in the Far East began and US ships inflicted the first decisive defeats on Japanese.
1943: Right-wing military coup, in which Juan Peron played an important role, overthrew Argentina president Ramon Castillo. Peron was elected to the presidency in 1946.
1944: Rome was liberated by the Allies.
1956: Egypt announced it would not extend the Suez Canal Company’s concession after expiration in 1959.
1958: The first Duke of Edinburgh awards were presented at Buckingham Palace.
1963: The war minister, John Profumo, resigned from Parliament, admitting that he misled the Commons about his relationship with call-girl Christine Keeler.
1970: Tonga or Friendly Isles became completely independent and a member of the Commonwealth.
1977: Damage estimated at £15,000 was caused when fans dug up the Wembley pitch after Scotland beat England 2-1.
1992: The Appeal Court in London cleared Judith Ward of involvement in the M62 coach bombing in 1974.
1995: Lightning killed 17 soccer fans at a match in the central American republic of Honduras.
1995: Footballer Paul Gascoigne joined Rangers from Lazio in a £4.3million deal.
1996: £565 million and ten years’ work ended in a hail of debris when a European Space Agency rocket, Ariane 5, blew up 45 seconds after launching in French Guyana.
1998: Terry Nichols was sentenced to life in prison for his role in the Oklahoma City bombing.
2001: Gyanendra, the last King of Nepal, ascended to the throne after the massacre in the Royal Palace.
2010: St Andrews shelved plans for a near-£50 million refurbishment of its library due to a lack of funds.