Edinburgh was founded before the 7th century and these photographs, some over 100 years old, show just how much the Scottish capital has changed.
Those of us in Edinburgh (or “Auld Reekie” as it’s known in Scots) are all too familiar with the traffic caused by construction, but some of these pictures put into perspective the long-term benefits of that work as we appreciate where we are now.
Here are 11 pictures that show Edinburgh then and now; with photographs taken many lifetimes from our own. When future content creators mark the changes between our present and their own, what changes do you expect we’ll see?
1. Princes Street (1858)
Unlike the horse-drawn carriages that once graced the cobbled paths of Princes Street, these days you will be faced with a slew of chaotic busses, cars and trams. What's unchanged though is the Scott Monument in the background which has stood tall since 1840. Photo: National Galleries of Scotland (Flickr) / Dr. Osama S M Amin FRCP(Glasg) (WikiCommons)
2. Grassmarket (1865)
Nowadays the Grassmarket boasts an exquisite selection of pubs and shops, but back in the day it was a busy market place for livestock and - unfortunately - an infamous site for public executions. Photo: A. D. White Architectural Photographs, Cornell University / kim traynor (WikiCommons)
3. Cowgate (1860)
During a time when it was illegal to move cattle through the city streets, this passage enabled people to bring their cattle from their fields to the south and east of Edinburgh to the cattle market nearby Grassmarket. Photo: Adam Fagen (Flickr) / William Donaldson Clark (WikiCommons)
4. Calton Hill View (1865)
Calton Hill is one of Edinburgh's most famous landmarks for its collection of historical architecture, one being the National Monument which is inspired by the Parthenon in Athens. Photo: Juan Antonio Segal (Flickr) / George Washington Wilson (WikiCommons)