The move by Xilinx Inc will create 12 new jobs and protect 30 existing roles, Nicola Sturgeon confirmed.
The venture is being supported by a £1 million research and development grant distributed through Scottish Enterprise.
Ms Sturgeon made the announcement as she prepares to carry out a week of engagements in the United States to promote trade and investment.
She said: “The USA is Scotland’s top source of inward investment and Xilinx Inc is another example of a leading technology company harnessing our highly educated and skilled workforce.
“This is fantastic news for this specialist sector in Scotland with new jobs being created and existing ones protected. It also demonstrates our strength and expertise in developing these state-of-the-art technologies.
“We are committed to building on these successes and attracting more companies to invest and expand here. That is why next week I’ll travel to the United States to promote trade and investment between our two countries.”
Xilinx Scotland will develop communications technologies, particularly around 5G, and aims to establish itself as a centre of excellence.
Firm director Dr Colin Carruthers said Scotland has a long history of invention and innovation.
“We are very excited to be at the centre of this truly innovative research and development,” he said.
“This is a unique opportunity to define and develop the technologies that will enable next generation wireless communication devices.”
Dr Lena Wilson, chief executive of Scottish Enterprise, said: “Xilinx’s success is testament to Scotland’s world leading highly educated and skilled workforce.”