The Dunfermline-based company, which makes machines for scanning the inside of a patient’s eye, said Burdett will replace Christine Soden on 31 May.
Soden is standing down so that she can reduce the amount of time she spends travelling as the vast majority of Optos’ sales come from overseas, including the United States and Australia.
But Soden will remain with the London-listed company as a consultant.
Burdett played a key role during the merger of Glaxo and SmithKline, working as finance integration director. She later served as chief financial officer at General Electric Healthcare’s medical diagnostics business.
Burdett also holds a degree in biochemistry from Imperial College in London.
Roy Davis, chief executive at Optos, said: “I am delighted to welcome Louisa to Optos. We look forward to benefiting from the experience she has gained in finance in major multinational healthcare firms. She adds a breadth of international expertise to help Optos continue its global expansion.
“We would like to thank Christine for her hard work and her contribution to the transformation of Optos over the past few years. Optos is now in a significantly-stronger position with much-improved financial results and brighter prospects.
“We are delighted that Christine has agreed to remain with us, providing continued counsel and advice to the business as it grows to the next level.”