The brick pump house and water treatment works, dating from the early 1800s, were unearthed during construction of the Athletes’ Village in the Dalmarnock area of Glasgow.
Watt, a mechanical engineer, and Telford, ICE’s first president, were advisers for the building beside the River Clyde.
The map - designed for school use to encourage pupils to become engineers - also highlights that the Village has “permeable” pavements through which rainwater can pass to help prevent flooding.
The site, which will house 6,500 athletes and officials, was also specially designed to cope with a one in 200 year flood.
Hot water and heating for the homes, which will be let or sold after the Games, will be provided by a central combined heat and power plant.
There are also solar panels on their roofs.
The plant will also supply a 120-bed care home on the site and the adjacent Emirates Arena and Sir Chris Hoy Velodrome.
Among other venues featured on the map is Hampden Park, which will have the largest raised stadium surface of its kind anywhere - nearly two metres (6ft) higher than the football pitch.
The novel “raised deck system”, which was unveiled last week, weighs more than 1,000 tonnes and comprises 1,200 panels supported by 6,000 steel stilts.
In the first use of the technology on such a scale, a further 16,000 tonnes of stone, tar and rubber were placed on top.
The ICE said it was now known as the “Glasgow solution”, enabling athletics to be held at stadia not purpose built for such events.
The Engineering the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games map, produced with Ordnance Survey, is due to be launched today by housing and welfare minister Margaret Burgess.
ICE Scotland director Sara Thiam said: “The Games have provided a fantastic showcase of engineering talent in Scotland and we hope the map will be an excellent tool for schools to encourage the next generation of engineers.”
Glasgow 2014 chief executive David Grevemberg said: “The right infrastructure is vitally important to delivering an outstanding Games and there is a clear legacy benefit in being able to educate young people about the role of civil engineers in staging a major sporting event.
“The spectacular transformation of Hampden Park from iconic football stadium to world-class athletics venue is a pioneering solution and an achievement of which Glasgow and Scotland can be justifiably proud.”