EVENTS, birthdays, anniversaries
1563: The French army recaptured Le Havre from the English.
1586: Sir Walter Raleigh brought the first tobacco to England from Virginia.
1643: Oliver Cromwell defeated the royalist forces at the Battle of Gainsborough.
1689: Battle of Killiecrankie, in which Williamite forces, under the Whig General Mackay, were routed by the Jacobites led by John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, who received fatal injuries.
1694: The Bank of England was granted a 12-year charter by an Act of Parliament.
1760: Scottish School of Design founded. It became the Royal Institution, now the Royal Scottish Academy in Edinburgh.
1794: The Thermidorian Coup took place during the French Revolution, bringing about the fall and execution of Robespierre.
1816: US troops destroyed Fort Apalachicola, a Seminole fort, to punish the native Indians for harbouring runaway slaves.
1836: Adelaide, in south Australia, was founded.
1839: Opium War between China and Britain began after Chinese authorities seized and burned British cargoes of opium.
1839: Chartist riots broke out in Birmingham.
1866: A telegraph cable, 1,686 miles long, was successfully laid across the Atlantic Ocean.
1890: Vincent Van Gogh went to the spot where he had painted Cornfield with Flight of Birds, and shot himself. He died two days later, in Auvers-sur-Oise, north of Paris, aged 37. In his lifetime he had sold only four paintings.
1917: The allies reached the Yser Canal at the Battle of Passchendaele
1921: The first insulin was isolated by Canadians Sir Frederick Banting and his assistant Charles Best, at the University of Toronto, providing an effective treatment for diabetes.
1933: Assyrian Christians were massacred in Iraq.
1942: The first Battle of El Alamein ended after 27 days, with the army, under Auchinleck, having held the German and Italian forces and prevented their advance into Egypt.
1944: Gloster Meteor, Britain’s first jet fighter and the Allies’ first operational jet fighter of the Second World War, made its first operational flight.
1948: Don Bradman scored his 29th and last Test century, playing for Australia against England at Headingley.
1953: Korean Armistice was signed at Panmunjom, dividing the north and the south into two countries.
1962: Mariner 2, an American space probe to Venus, was launched.
1964: Sir Winston Churchill made his last appearance in the House of Commons.
1962: Martin Luther King was jailed in Albany, Georgia.
1969: Irishman Tom McClean, of the Parachute Regiment, arrived in County Mayo after rowing solo across the Atlantic for 71 days from St John’s in a 20ft boat.
1990: The World Health Organisation said Aids was the main cause of death for women between 20 and 40 years of age.
1990: Actress Zsa Zsa Gabor began a three-day jail sentence for slapping a policeman.
1993: Five people were killed when the Mafia set off bombs at historical and cultural sites in Rome and Florence, including the Uffizi gallery.
1996: In Atlanta, Georgia, a pipe bomb exploded at Centennial Olympic Park during the Summer Olympics. One woman was killed, and 111 were injured.
2011: On the eve of announcing profits of nearly £300 million, British Gas was fined £2.5m for failing to deal with customers’ complaints properly.
2013: One hundred people were killed and 1,500 injured during a crackdown on protesters in Cairo, Egypt.
Roseanna Cunningham, MSP, minister for community safety and legal affairs, 64; Allan Border, cricketer and commentator, 60; Anna Dawson, actress, 78; Christopher Dean OBE, ice skater, 57; Jo Durie, tennis player, coach and commentator, 55; Bobbie Gentry, singer, 71; Jack Higgins, novelist, 86; Barbara Thompson MBE, saxophonist, 71; Baroness (Shirley) Williams of Crosby, co-founder, Social Democratic Party, 85; Jordan Spieth, golfer, 22; Peggy Fleming, three-time world champions figure skater and commentator, 67.
Births: 1824 Alexandre Dumas fils, playwright; 1870 Hilaire Belloc, writer and poet; 1882, Donald Crisp, Scottish actor; 1882 Sir Geoffrey de Havilland, aircraft designer and manufacturer; 1900 Charles Vidor, film director.
Deaths: 432 Celestine I, Italian pope; 1876 Walter Channing, physician, first to use anaesthetic during childbirth; 1946 Gertrude Stein, novelist and poet; 1980 Shah of Iran; 1984 James Mason, film actor; 2000 Peter Keenan, boxer and promoter; 2003 Bob Hope, comic actor.