EVENTS, birthdays and anniversaries on July 1.
National day of Canada.
1505: Seal of Cause granted by Edinburgh Town Council to the Incorporation of Barbers and Surgeons to practise their craft. It became the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh.
1543: England and Scotland signed Greenwich Treaties to secure peace.
1592: Charter granted to Sir Alexander Fraser of Philorth to found a university at Fraserburgh.
1836: North of Scotland Bank founded by Alexander Anderson and others in Aberdeen.
1837: Registration of births, marriages and deaths came into effect in England and Wales.
1843: The Union Bank of Scotland opened in Glasgow.
1858: Charles Darwin announced his theory of evolution in an address to the Linnean Society.
1867: Dominion of Canada was established under the British North America Act, with four provinces, masterminded by John Alexander MacDonald, first prime minister.
1897: The Klondike gold rush began in United States.
1907: The world’s first air force was established with the founding of the Aeronautical Division of the US Army’s Signals Office.
1910: Union of South Africa became a dominion of British Empire.
1912: The British Copyright Act came into force, protecting authors’ works for 50 years after death.
1916: British and French forces started offensive on the Somme. There were 60,000 British casualties on the first day.
1921: Jack Dempsey beat Georges Carpentier to retain world heavyweight boxing championship.
1929: The cartoon character Popeye the Sailor was created by Elzie Segar in the US.
1937: Telephone 999 emergency service came into operation in Britain.
1944: The Bretton Woods conference began with representatives of 44 nations formulating international monetary policy.
1946: United States tested atomic bomb over Bikini Atoll in Marshall Islands in the Pacific.
1960: Ghana was proclaimed a republic, with Kwame Nkrumah as its first president.
1967: Television in colour began on BBC2. Most of the first seven-hour broadcast was tennis from Wimbledon.
1969: Prince Charles was invested as Prince of Wales at Caernarvon Castle.
1977: Britain’s Virginia Wade won the women’s singles at the Centenary Wimbledon, beating Holland’s Betty Stove.
1987: Single European Act came into force.
1996: Tim Henman became the first British player for 23 years to reach the men’s quarter-finals at Wimbledon. He was defeated in the semi-finals.
1999: The Queen officially opened the new Scottish Parliament in its temporary home in the Assembly Hall at The Mound, Edinburgh, saying Scotland had stepped “across the threshold of a new constitutional age”.
2002: The International Criminal Court was established to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression.
2007: A ban on smoking in all public and work places came into effect in England. A similar ban was already in operation in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Debbie Harry, singer, 70; Pamela Anderson, actress, 48; Dan Aykroyd, actor, 63; Geneviève Bujold, Canadian actress, 73; Olivia de Havilland, actress, 99; Trevor Eve, British actor, 64; Carl Fogarty MBE, motorbike racing champion, 50; Carl Lewis, Olympic sprint gold medallist, 54; Professor Sir David Lane, oncologist, 63; Adrian John Charles Hope, 4th Marquess of Linlithgow, 69; Ruud van Nistelrooy, footballer, 39; Liv Tyler, actress, 38; Peter Walwyn MBE, racehorse trainer, 82; Jeff Wayne, musician (War of the Worlds), 72; David Prowse MBE, bodybuilder and actor, 80; Missy Elliott, rapper and record producer, 44.
Births: 1899 Charles Laughton, actor; 1903 Amy Johnson, aviator; 1904 James Cagney, actor; 1906 Estée Lauder, founder of cosmetics empire; 1925 Farley Granger, actor; 1934 Sydney Pollack, film director; 1954 Jim Farry, former chief executive, Scottish Football Association; 1961 Diana, Princess of Wales.
Deaths: 1860 Charles Goodyear, inventor of vulcanised-rubber process; 1884 Allan Pinkerton, Scots-born founder of the American detective agency; 1896 1924 Erik Satie, composer; 1974 Juan Peron, Argentine president; 1996 Margaux Hemmingway, actress; 1997 Robert Mitchum, actor; 1999 Viscount Whitelaw, politician; 2000 Walter Matthau, actor; 2004 Marlon Brando, actor; 2005 Luther Vandross, singer; 2006 Fred Trueman, cricketer and broadcaster; 2009 Mollie Sugden, actress.