Events, birthdays and anniversaries for 1 July
National day of Canada.
1505: Seal of Cause granted by Edinburgh Town Council to the Incorporation of Barbers and Surgeons to practise their craft. It became the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh.
1543: England and Scotland signed Greenwich Treaties to secure peace.
1592: Charter granted to Sir Alexander Fraser of Philorth to found a university at Fraserburgh.
1690: The Battle of the Boyne took place near Drogheda in Ireland. King James VII was defeated by the army of William of Orange.
1836: North of Scotland Bank founded by Alexander Anderson and others in Aberdeen.
1843: The Union Bank of Scotland opened in Glasgow.
1858: Charles Darwin announced his theory of evolution in an address to the Linnean Society.
1872: The Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens, London, was unveiled by Queen Victoria.
1897: The Klondike gold rush began in United States.
1910: Union of South Africa became a dominion of British Empire.
1912: The British Copyright Act came into force, protecting authors’ works for 50 years after death.
1916: British and French forces started offensive on the Somme. There were 60,000 British casualties on the first day.
1929: The cartoon character Popeye the Sailor was created by Elzie Segar in the United States.
1937: Telephone 999 emergency service came into operation in Britain.
1946: United States tested atomic bomb over Bikini Atoll in Marshall Islands in the Pacific.
1967: Television in colour began on BBC2. Most of the first seven-hour broadcast was tennis from Wimbledon.
1969: Prince Charles was invested as Prince of Wales at Caernarvon Castle.
1977: Britain’s Virginia Wade won the women’s singles at the centenary Wimbledon, beating Betty Stove of the Netherlands.
1987: Single European Act came into force.
1990: West and East Germany created economic unity and accepted single currency.
1991: The Warsaw Pact was finally abolished.
1991: Compulsory rear seatbelts to be worn by adults.
1994: Yasser Arafat, the chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organisation, made a triumphant return to his Palestinian homeland after 27 years.
1999: The Queen officially opened the new Scottish Parliament in its temporary home in the Assembly Hall at the Mound, Edinburgh.
Debbie Harry, rock singer (Blondie), 68; Olivia de Havilland, film actress, 97; Trevor Eve, actor, 62;Carl Fogarty, motorbike racing champion, 47; ; Professor Sir David Lane, oncologist, 61; Adrian John Charles Hope, 4th Marquess of Linlithgow, 67; Jean Marsh, actress, 79; Tom Robinson, rock singer, 63; Peter Walwyn MBE, racehorse trainer, 80; Jeff Wayne, musician (War of the Worlds), 70.
Births: 1872 Louis Blériot, aviator and aircraft designer; 1899 Charles Laughton, actor; 1906 Estée Lauder, founder of cosmetics empire; 1954 Jim Farry, former chief executive, Scottish Football Association; 1961 Diana, Princess of Wales.
Deaths: 1555 John Bradford, Protestant martyr (burnt at the stake); 1589 Christophe Plantin, typographer and printer; 1860 Charles Goodyear, inventor of vulcanised-rubber process.