EVENTS, birthdays and anniversaries on January 1.
National days of Cuba, Sudan and Haiti.
1651: Charles II was crowned King of Scots at Scone. It was the last coronation in Scotland.
1660: Samuel Pepys wrote the first words in his diary, using a system of shorthand. He kept diaries for ten years.
1760: Carron Ironworks near Falkirk was started by Roebuck & Garbett of Birmingham and
Cadell of Cockenzie. The small naval guns known as carronades were among the company’s products.
1783: Glasgow Chamber of Commerce was founded, the first in Britain.
1833: Britain proclaimed sovereignty over the Falklands.
1863: American president Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation declaring slaves free.
1904: The first motor vehicle registration number in Britain, A1, was secured for his Napier car by Earl Russell.
1909: Thousands of Britons over 70 went to post offices to draw their first weekly pension of five shillings (25p).
1913: Film censorship came into operation in UK.
1919: Britain’s worst peacetime naval disaster happened when the naval yacht Iolaire, carrying 260 Lewis men returning from war service, and 24 crew, struck a reef on its approach to Stornoway Harbour at 2am. Within just
20 yards of the shore, 205 died as the overloaded vessel foundered.
1923: Most of the Scottish railways merged into the LMS and LNER. The Caledonian Railway followed suit later in the year.
1947: Britain’s coal industry nationalised.
1951: Steel industry nationalised.
1958: The European Economic Community came into being, the Treaty of Rome having been signed on 25 November, 1957, by the Six members.
1959: Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba.
1961: Birth control pill was first used in Britain.
1964: The first Top Of The Pops was aired, with Jimmy Savile as its presenter.
1970: The age of majority in Britain was reduced from 21 to 18.
1973: Britain, Ireland and Denmark became EEC members.
1981: Greece became the tenth member of the EEC.
1995: Frederick West, awaiting trial for 12 murders in and near Gloucester, hanged himself in his prison cell in Birmingham.
2011: Estonia officially adopted the euro currency and became the 17th eurozone country.
Paul Lawrie OBE, golfer, 46; Alister Campbell, rugby player, 56; Robin Orr Blair, former Lord Lyon King of Arms, 75; Grandmaster Flash (Joseph Saddler), funk musician, 57; John Fuller, poet, novelist and critic, 78; Frank Langella, actor, 77; Jonas Armstrong, actor, 34; Sir Albert McQuarrie, MP 1979-87, 97; Jack Wilshere, footballer, 23; Colin Morgan, actor, 29; Meryl Davis, Olympic gold medal-winning figure skater, 28; Linda Henry, actress, 52; Verne Troyer, actor and stunt performer, 46; Jeremy Irvine, actor, 25; Elin Nordegren, model, ex-wife of Tiger Woods, 35; Joseph Lombardo, Mafia boss, 86; Steven Davis, footballer, 30; Lilian Thuram, French footballer, 43; Sophie Okonedo OBE, British actress, 47; Morris Chestnut, actor, 46; Mark Wingett, British actor, 54; Fiona Phillips, TV presenter, 54; Rivelino, Brazilian World Cup-winning footballer, 69; Jacky Ickx, racing driver, 70; Ty Hardin, actor, 85.
Births: 1449 Lorenzo de’ Medici, ruler of Florence; 1735 Paul Revere, American patriot and folk hero of the War of Independence; 1752 Betsy Ross, seamstress credited with making the first “Stars and Stripes” flag; 1779 William Clowes, printer; 1854 Sir James Frazer, Glasgow-born anthropologist; 1863 Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin, father of the modern Olympic Games; 1879 EM Forster, novelist; 1895 J Edgar Hoover, FBI founder; 1912 Kim Philby, Soviet agent who worked for British Intelligence; 1918 Colonel Patrick Porteous VC, Scottish recipient of Victoria Cross for gallantry in Second World War; 1919 JD Salinger, author; 1919 Rocky Graziano, world middleweight boxing champion; 1919 Carole Landis, actress; 1925 Idi Amin, Uganda dictator; 1928 Iain Crichton Smith, Glasgow-born poet; 1933 Joe Orton, playwright and author.
Deaths: 1204 Haakon III, king of Norway; 1515 Louis XII, king of France; 1766 James Stuart, the “Old Pretender” and father of Prince Charles Edward Stuart; 1782 Johann Christian Bach, composer, son of Johann Sebastian and mentor of Mozart; 1932 CP Scott, journalist and politician, owner and editor of Manchester Guardian; 1944 Sir Edwin Lutyens, architect; 1953 Hank Williams, musician, singer-songwriter; 1972 Maurice Chevalier, actor and singer; 1986 L Ron Hubbard, writer and propounder of Scientology.