EVENTS, birthdays, anniversaries
1530: Cardinal Wolsey was arrested as a traitor.
1576: Spanish forces defeated the Walloons to capture the city of Antwerp during the Eighty Days’ War.
1841: the first wagon train to cross North America arrived in California.
1852: Building of new House of Commons completed after fire of 1834.
1854: Florence Nightingale arrived in Scutari with a group of nurses in time for the Battle of Balaclava.
1856: James Buchanan was elected US president.
1879: James Ritty patented the first cash register to combat stealing by bartenders at his saloon in Dayton, Ohio.
1890: Great Britain proclaimed Zanzibar as a protectorate.
1890: The Prince of Wales, later to become Edward VII, opened the first London Underground station at Stockwell.
1891: The first photograph in a British newspaper, a picture of a Liberal parliamentary candidate, appeared in the Daily Graphic.
1921: Japan’s premier Takashi Hara was assassinated in Tokyo.
1922: British archaeologist Howard Carter discovered the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun.
1924: Labour prime minister Ramsay MacDonald resigned.
1931: Herbert Samuel succeeded Lloyd George as leader of the Liberal Party.
1939: United States president Roosevelt said he would sign the American Neutrality Act which would allow Britain and France to buy arms, planes and ammunition in America by “cash and carry”.
1944: Allies announced that Greece had been liberated from Germans.
1948: TS Eliot won the Nobel Prize for literature.
1952: General Eisenhower won the American presidential election in a landslide.
1952: The Queen opened her first parliament.
1958: Baroness Elliot of Harwood became the first woman peer to address the House of Lords.
1976: Britain proposed Rhodesian independence under black majority rule by 1 March, 1978.
1979: Iranian students seized US Embassy in Tehran along with 60 occupants and demanded the ousted Shah of Iran as ransom.
1980: Ronald Reagan was elected 40th president of United States.
1990: Michael Heseltine published open letter to his constituency chairman attacking Margaret Thatcher’s leadership.
1991: William Roache, Ken Barlow in Coronation Street, was awarded £50,000 libel damages against The Sun, which had called him “self-satisfied, smug and boring”.
1992: In the Commons, the government won the Maastricht debate by three votes.
1995: Israeli prime minister Yitzak Rabin assassinated by an Israeli extremist.
2008: Barack Obama became the first African-American to be elected president of the USA.
2010: Qantas grounded its Airbus A380 “superjumbo” jet fleet after engine failure forced an aircraft to make an emergency landing.
Matthew McConaughey actor, 46; Malandra Burrows, actress, 50; Laura Bush, former United States first lady, 69; P Diddy, rapper, 46; Chris Difford, musician (Squeeze), 61; Elgar Howarth, British musician, composer and conductor, 80; Rodney Marsh MBE, cricketer, 68; Louise Redknapp, singer, television presenter, 41; Joan Rodgers CBE, soprano, 59; Heather Tom, American actress, 40; Loretta Swit, actress, 78; Doris Roberts, actress, 90; Tony Abbott, president of Australia (2013-2015), 58; Luis Figo, Portuguese footballer, 43; Guy Martin, motor cycle racer, 34; Nigel Worthington, football manager and former player, 54; Scherrie Payne, singer (the Supremes), 71.
Births: 1650 William II of Orange, King of England and Ireland (known as William II of Scotland); 1771 James Montgomery, Irvine-born hymn writer; 1916 Ruth Handler, Barbie doll creator; 1916 Walter Cronkite, US broadcaster; 1923 Freddy Heineken, brewer; 1964 Lena Zavaroni, singer.
Deaths: 1847 Felix Mendelssohn, composer and pianist; 1859 Joseph Rowntree, cocoa manufacturer; 1869 George Peabody, philanthropist; 1918 Wilfred Owen, war poet and soldier; 1924 Gabriel Fauré, composer and pianist; 1990 Sir David Stirling, founder of the SAS; 1995 Marti Caine, actress; 2008 Michael Crichton, author.