Events, birthdays and anniversaries on 9 July
National day of Argentina
1191: Richard I, the Lionheart, married Berengaria, reputed to be extremely ugly. Although Queen, she never set foot on English soil.
1357: Charles IV, the Holy Roman emperor, assisted in laying the foundation stone of the Charles Bridge in Prague.
1540: Henry VIII divorced Anne of Cleves, nicknamed The Flanders Mare, and his fourth wife, after six months of marriage.
1745: En route from France to Scotland, Bonnie Prince Charlie looked on from his ship, Doutelle, as his other ship, Elisabeth, engaged in a five-hour battle with HMS Lion. Badly damaged and with a numbr of crewmen killed, both vessels finally withdrew.
1776: The American Declaration of Independence was read on the parade ground at Lower Manhattan to thousands of George Washington’s troops who had come to help defend New York against the British.
1867: Queen’s Park Football Club was formed, the first senior club in Scotland.
1872: The first doughnut cutter was patented in America by John Blondel. A sea captain, he is said to have invented the hole so he could slip the doughnut over the handle of the ship’s wheel and enjoy his snack while steering.
1877: Wimbledon staged its first lawn tennis championship at its original site in Worple Road, London.
1893 Chicago surgeon Daniel Williams performed the first open heart surgery without anaesthetic.
1900 The commonwealth of Australia was established in the British parliament.
1910: A stone tablet describing the fall of Jerusalem was discovered by archaeologists in Egypt.
1917: HMS Vanguard blew up in Scapa Flow with the loss of more than 800men.
1922: Johnny Weissmuller became the first man to swim 100 metres in less than a minute.
1938: Gas masks were first issued to the civilian population of Britain in anticipation of the Second World War.
1955 Rock Around the Clock by Bill Haley and the Comets topped the Billboard chart.
1974 Pierre Trudeau’s Liberal party won the Canadian parliamentary election.
1977 Tom Watson won the Open Championship at Turnberry, following the classic “Duel in the Sun” with Jack Nicklaus.
1982 Margaret Thatcher began her second term of office as prime minister.
1984: York Minster was struck by lightning and the roof destroyed.
1991 South Africa were readmitted to the Olympic Games.
1997 Mike Tyson was banned from boxing for biting off part of Evander Holyfield’s ear.
2007: The BBC was fined £50,000 for faking the winner of a phone-in competition on a Blue Peter programme.
2011: South Sudan became a nation in its own right, the climax of a process made possible by the 2005 peace deal that ended a long and bloody civil war.