Events, birthdays and anniversaries for 22 October
362: The temple of Apollo at Daphne was destroyed by fire.
794: Emperor Kanmu relocated the capital of Japan to Heiankyo (now Kyoto).
1797: First parachute descent made by André-Jacques Garnerin from a balloon over Paris.
1877: A firedamp explosion at Blantyre Colliery, Lanarkshire, killed 207 miners – Scotland’s worst mining accident. Widows and orphans who were unable to support themselves were evicted from their tied cottages by the mine owners.
1904: The Dogger Bank incident took place in the North Sea, when the Russian Baltic fleet fired on British trawlers, mistaking them for an Imperial Japanese Navy fleet.
1906: Henry Ford became president of the Ford Motor Company.
1910: Dr Hawley Harvey Crippen was convicted at Old Bailey of poisoning his wife Cora, and was subsequently hanged (23 November) in London.
1924: Ministry of Health banned use of preservatives in dairy products and many other foods.
1933: Italian boxer Primo Carnera defeated Spanish opponent Paulino Uzcudun in 15 rounds to retain the world heavyweight title.
1937: Duke and Duchess of Windsor arrived in Berlin to meet Hitler, study poor housing conditions and hear a concert by the Nazi District Orchestra.
1952: SA Velcro patented the non-metallic fastener that was later developed for space suits.
1962: Cuban missile crisis began as president John F Kennedy announced blockade of Cuba in protest at installation of Russian missiles there.
1962: Nelson Mandela’s treason trial opened in South Africa.
1964: Jean-Paul Sartre turned down the Nobel Prize for literature. His publisher said he would never accept gifts. The only other authors to turn down the award had been George Bernard Shaw and Boris Pasternak (who was made to by his government).
1987: First volume of Gutenberg Bible sold in New York for £3.26m, making it the most expensive printed book ever.
1992: Demonstrators threw eggs at the Queen when she arrived at a church in Dresden, Germany, for a service of reconciliation.
1995: Scotland won the Alfred Dunhill Cup at St Andrews for the first time, beating Zimbabwe in the final.
1999: Maurice Papon, an official in the Vichy France government during the Second World War, was jailed for crimes against humanity.
2000: Michael Schumacher won the Malaysian Grand Prix to complete the Formula One season and win the drivers championship by 19 points.
2005: Tropical Storm Alpha formed in the Atlantic Basin, making the 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season the most active Atlantic hurricane season on record with 22 named storms.
2008: India launched its first unmanned lunar mission Chandrayaan-1.
2009: The first nationwide postal strike in two years began after talks between Royal Mail and the Communication Workers Union broke down.
2013: Thirty-seven Boko Harem Islamic militants were killed by Nigerian forces in air and ground strikes on an insurgent camp in the north-east of the country.
Catherine Deneuve, actress, 72; Colonel John Blashford-Snell OBE, explorer and author, 79; Jeff Goldblum, actor, 63; Sir Derek Jacobi CBE, actor, 77; Craig Levein, Scottish footballer, manager and administrator, 51; Christopher Lloyd, actor, 77; Winston Bogarde, footballer, 45; Shelby Lynne, singer, 47; Sir Donald McIntyre CBE, opera singer, 81; Kelvin MacKenzie, media executive and former newspaper executive, 69; Paul McStay OBE, Scottish footballer, 51; Sir Michael Stoute, racehorse trainer, 70; Arsene Wenger, football manager, 66; George Cohen MBE, World Cup-winning footballer, 76; Barbara Potter, tennis player, 54; Mike Hendrick, former cricketer, 67.
Births: 1811 Franz Liszt, composer and pianist; 1844 Sarah Bernhardt, actress; 1913 Robert Capa, war photographer and photojournalist; 1915 Yitzhak Shamir, prime minister of Israel 1986 to 1992; 1919 Doris Lessing OBE, novelist and Nobel laureate.
Deaths: 1906 Paul Cézanne, painter; 1975 Arnold Toynbee, historian; 1995 Sir Kingsley Amis, author; 1996 Matthew Harding, businessman and football club director; 1999 Sharman Weir, musician, general manager, Citizen’s Theatre, Glasgow; 2005 Tony Adams, producer.