Events, birthdays and anniversaries
1567: Earl of Bothwell, defeated at Battle of Carberry Hill, escaped to Norway, but Mary Queen of Scots was taken captive.
1744: Admiral George Anson returned to Spithead in the Centurion, after circumnavigating the globe in three years and nine months.
1855: Stamp duty on newspapers was abolished.
1860: Florence Nightingale started her School for Nurses at St Thomas’s Hospital, London.
1910: Captain Robert F Scott set out on his second and fatal expedition to the South Pole.
1919: John Alcock and Arthur Whitten Brown completed the first non-stop transatlantic flight from Lester’s Field, St John’s, Newfoundland, to Derrygimla Bog, County Galway, in a Vickers Vimy in just over 16 hours.
1945: Family allowance payments were introduced in Britain – 5s (25p) a week for the second child and subsequent children.
1952: Anne Frank’s diary published, eight years after she was sent to a concentration camp to die.
1969: Georges Pompidou became president of France.
1977: Spain had its first general election since 1936, resulting in victory for the Democratic Centre Party.
1989: European elections saw major losses for Conservatives and 2.3 million votes for Green Party.
1991: Half a million people were evacuated from the area round Mount Pinatubo, a volcano in the Philippines, which for six days had been spewing out rocks and clouds of gas.
1995: Former Liverpool and Rangers manager Graeme Souness was awarded £750,000 libel damages over a newspaper article in which his ex-wife called him “tight-fisted” and a “dirty rat”.
1996: More than 200 people were injured when an IRA bomb wrecked the centre of Manchester.
2002: Near-Earth asteroid 2002 MN missed the Earth by 75,000 miles, about one-third of the distance to the Moon.
2010: The Saville Inquiry into the Bloody Sunday shootings concluded British paratroopers opened fire on unarmed civilians as they tended the wounded on that fateful day (30 January, 1972). The 14 people killed were exonerated in the report.
Henry McLeish, First Minister 2000-1, MP 1987-2001, 65; Richard Baker OBE, broadcaster, 88; James Belushi, actor, 59; Alan Brazil, footballer and radio broadcaster, 54; Jake Busey, actor, 42; Simon Callow CBE, actor, 64; Robert Cohen, cellist, 54; Courteney Cox-Arquette, actress, 49; Nadine Coyle, singer (Girls Aloud), 28; Johnny Herbert, racing driver, 49; Noddy Holder MBE, pop singer (Slade), 67; Helen Hunt, actress, 50; Justin Leonard, golfer, 41; Professor Paul Patterson, composer, 66.
Births: 1563 George Heriot, jeweller, goldsmith and benefactor; 1815 Hablot Knight Browne, artist and illustrator (Phiz); 1843 Edvard Grieg, composer; 1905 James Robertson-Justice, actor; 1911 Reverend W Awdry, children’s author/creator of Thomas the Tank Engine; 1913 Right-Reverend Trevor Huddleston, anti-apartheid campaigner.
Deaths: 1844 Thomas Campbell, poet; 1929 Charles Bush, inventor of arc lamp; 1993 James Hunt, racing driver; 1996 Sir Fitzroy Maclean, diplomat, soldier, politician and writer; 1996 Ella Fitzgerald, jazz singer.