Events, birthdays and anniversaries for 8 August
AD117: Hadrian became Emperor of Rome.
1296: Scottish Coronation Stone removed from Scone Abbey by King Edward I.
1503: Marriage of James IV and Margaret Tudor, sister of Henry VIII.
1570: Peace of St Germain-en-Laye ended third Civil War in France, whereby Huguenots gained greater concessions.
1767: Mount Vesuvius erupted.
1815: France’s Napoleon Bonaparte sailed for St Helenaand life in exile.
1870: The first America’s Cup race took place. Magic of the United States beat Britain’s challenger, Cambria.
1900: The Davis Cup for tenniswas contested for the first time and won by the US.
1911: Five thousand troops moved to Liverpool to quell riots amid industrial and civil unrest.
1914: The first British troops landed in France.
1918: Twenty divisions of Allied troops went into action near Amiens in the final thrust to break the Hindenburg Line.
1940: The decisive period of the Battle of Britain began.
1944: A field marshal and four generals were hanged by piano wire for attempt on Hitler’s life.
1953: US and South Korea signed mutual defence treaty.
1958: Columbia Records signed 17-year-old singer Cliff Richard.
1963: The Great Train Robbery took place in Buckinghamshire.
1963: The United States, Britain and the USSR signed the Test Ban Treaty in the Kremlin.
1972: Première of the musical Jesus Christ Superstar at the Palace Theatre, London.
1974: Richard Nixon became the first United States president to resign, because of Watergate.
1990: Iraq announced the total annexation of Kuwait.
1991: British hostage John McCarthy was set free in Beirut after 1,942 days in captivity.
1995: Scottish Rugby Union said it wanted to pay players to end the hypocrisy surrounding the game’s tarnished amateur status.
2001: Hollywood superstars Nicole Kidman and Tom Cruise were divorced.
2008: Royal Bank of Scotland unveiled the group’s first loss in 40 years as a public company. The bank reported pre-tax losses of £691 million for the first half.
2008: The 2008 Olympic Games were launched in Beijing.
Katie Leung, Scottish actress, 26; Keith Barron, British actor, 77; Ronald Biggs, train robber, 84; Dennis Canavan, MP 1974-2001, 71; Keith Carradine, American actor, singer, song-writer, 64; Sarah Dunant, British broadcaster and thriller writer, 63; The Edge (David Evans), rock guitarist (U2), 52; Roger Federer, Swiss tennis champion, 32; Angus Fraser, English cricketer, commentator and writer, 48; Brian Harvey, pop singer, 39; Dustin Hoffman, American actor, 76; Bradley McIntosh, pop singer (S Club), 32; Nigel Mansell CBE, Formula 1 champion 1992, 60; Lord Smith of Kelvin, chairman, Weir Group, and Scottish governor, BBC, 69; Princess Beatrice of York, 25.
Births: 1876 Frank Richards (Charles Hamilton), author and creator of fat schoolboy Billy Bunter; 1921 Esther Williams, American swimmer and actress; 1931 Andy Warhol, artist.
Deaths: 1919 FW Woolworth, founder of the first dime-store; 1961 Air Commodore Cecil Wigglesworth, the man on whom the Biggles was based; 1996 Sir Frank Whittle, inventor of jet engine; 2004 Fay Wray, actress (King Kong).