Events, birthdays and anniversaries for 28 April
1398: Dukedom of Rothesay conferred on David Stuart, eldest son of King Robert III of Scotland.
1558: Walter Mylne burned at the stake at St Andrews for heresy, the last Protestant martyr in Scotland.
1603: The funeral of Queen Elizabeth took place at Westminster Abbey.
1770: Captain Cook in the Endeavour reached Australia, at a point in New South Wales they named Sting Ray Bay. Found to be a botanist’s paradise, it was later renamed Botany Bay.
1789: The mutiny on the Bounty took place in the South Seas, led by Fletcher Christian. Cast adrift with his loyal sailors in an overloaded open boat in the Pacific Ocean, Bligh survived. He was made a vice-admiral and became governor of New South Wales. The mutineers colonised Pitcairn Island, but Christian was dead within four years.
1876: Queen Victoria was declared Empress of India.
1919: Two crew members were lost from Fraserburgh lifeboat at harbour entrance.
1919: League of Nations was founded.
1931: The morning after a stiff Budget, motorists had to pay
1s 4d (just under 7p) a gallon for petrol, a rise of 2d a gallon.
1945: Benito Mussolini, Italian dictator, and his mistress Claretta Petacci were executed by partisans and their bodies were hung, head down, in the Piazza Loretto, Milan.
1952: Japan regained sovereignty after Second World War.
1955: Ruth Ellis was sent for trial accused of the murder of her lover. She later became the last woman to be hanged in Britain.
1961: Britain applied to join European Common Market.
1967: World Boxing authorities took away Muhammad Ali’s title for refusing to serve in United States forces.
1968: Tokyo police restored order after 5,000 people demonstrated for return of Okinawa to Japan, and an end to Vietnam War.
1969: Charles de Gaulle resigned as president of France.
1985: Dennis Taylor won the Embassy snooker championship after a spectacular final frame with Steve Davis.
1988: The first female conductor at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, London, Sian Edwards, 28, from Manchester, took up
1990: Liverpool beat Queen’s Park Rangers 2-1 to win their 18th League Championship.
1992: Triumphant rebel leaders arrived in Kabul in huge motor convoy to set up provisional Islamic government, marking the end of the 14-year civil war against communism in Afghanistan.
1993: A major health inquiry was launched in Scotland after an unknown number of women were wrongly given the “all-clear” on smear tests for cervical cancer.
1994: Britain accused Iran of planning to supply weapons and money to the IRA.
1995: Less than a year after it opened, Edinburgh’s Festival Theatre faced a cash crisis over debts of £3.1 million.
1996: A gunman shot dead 32 people when he went on the rampage in Port Arthur, Tasmania.
2001: Millionaire Dennis Tito became the world’s first space tourist.
2010: Prime Minister Gordon Brown was forced to apologise after being caught on tape describing a 65-year-old grandmother as a “bigot” during the general election campaign.
2011: A bomb attack in the main square in the Moroccan city of Marrakech killed more than 15 people and injured 20.
Jean Redpath MBE, Edinburgh-born folk singer, 77; Ann-Margret, actress, 73; Mike Brearley OBE, cricketer and psychoanalyst, 72; John Daly, golfer, 48; Grenville Davey, scul ptor, 53; Dr Kenneth Kaunda, president of Zambia 1964-91, 90; Vernon Kay, presenter and former model, 40; Lauren Laverne, disc jockey and presenter, 36; Harper Lee, novelist (notably To Kill a Mockingbird), 88; Professor Nicola LeFanu, composer, 67; Jay Leno, comedian and television host, 64; Sir Terence Pratchett OBE, fantasy author, 66; Ian Rankin OBE, Scottish writer (Inspector Rebus novels), 54; Dr Jeffrey Tate CBE, conductor, 71; Lady Helen Taylor, 50; Sir Bradley Wiggins, cyclist
Births: 1442 King Edward IV; 1801 Lord Shaftesbury, social reformer; 1878 Lionel Barrymore, actor; 1912 Odette Hallowes MBE, wartime agent; 1913 Reg Butler, sculptor; 1937 Saddam Hussein, president of Iraq 1979-2003.
Deaths: 1710 Thomas Betterton, actor and dramatist; 1831 John Abernethy, surgeon; 1842 Sir Charles Bell, anatomist; 1865 Sir Samuel Cunard, ship-owner; 1935 Sir Alexander Mackenzie, composer; 1940 Luisa Tetrazzini, soprano; 1988 Fenner Brockway, Baron Brockway, politician and pacifist; 1992 Francis Bacon, artist; 1992 Olivier Messiaen, composer and organist; 1999 Sir Alf Ramsay, footballer and manager.