EVENTS, birthdays, anniversaries
1492: The Diocese of Glasgow was elevated to an Archdiocese by Pope Innocent VIII.
1493: Christopher Columbus made the first recorded sighting of manatees – marine mammals also known as sea cows.
1522: Adriaan F Boeyens was elected as the only Dutch pope, Adrian VI.
1570: Tsar Ivan the Terrible killed between 1,00 and 2,000 residents of Novgorod.
1684: Puppet shows were performed and shopping stalls were set up on the Thames during the deep freeze.
1806: Lord Nelson was buried in St Paul’s Cathedral, London.
1811: The first women’s golf tournament took place in Scotland at Musselburgh.
1816: Sir Humphry Davy’s safety lamp was first used in a coal mine.
1902: New law in New York State banned flirting in public.
1927: Greta Garbo and John Gilbert shocked cinema-goers in New York by their lack of inhibition in the silent film Flesh and the Devil.
1939: Berlin’s Reichstag building, destroyed by fire in 1933, was opened by Hitler after rebuilding.
1945: American forces invaded Luzon in Philippines.
1957: Anthony Eden, in poor health, resigned as prime minister following the Suez fiasco. Harold Macmillan took over.
1959: Fishery cruiser Freya capsized near Wick, with the loss of three crew members.
1962: First de Havilland Trident made its maiden flight.
1968: United States Surveyer 7 spacecraft made soft landing on Moon.
1969: The first trial flight of Concorde, supersonic airliner, took place at Bristol.
1972: The Clyde-built Queen Elizabeth liner sank in Hong Kong harbour.
1972: The miners’ strike for improved pay and conditions began, their first national stoppage since 1926.
1989: MPs and war veterans protested at the announcement that the Duke of Edinburgh would attend the funeral of Emperor Hirohito of Japan in Tokyo.
1992: Serbs in Bosnia-Herzegovina proclaimed their own state, raising fears of bloodshed in the multi-ethnic republic.
1996: A band of Chechen gunmen seized 3,000 civilians and held them hostage in the Russian town of Kizlyar.
1997: British round-the-world solo yachtsman Tony Bullimore was rescued in the Southern Ocean after being trapped in the overturned hull of his yacht for four days.
2005: Elections were held to replace Yasser Arafat as head of the Palestine Liberation Organisation. He was succeeded by Rawhi Fattouh.
2011: Parcels containing bullets were sent to Celtic manager Neil Lennon.
Births: 1554 Pope Gregory XV; 1728 Thomas Warton, poet laureate; 1870 Joseph Strauss, structural engineer who built the Golden Gate Bridge; 1890 Karel Capek, Czech writer who introduced the word “robot”; 1898 Dame Gracie Fields, singer, comedienne and musical hall performer; 1902 Sir Rudolf Bing, founder of Edinburgh Festival; 1911 Gypsy Rose Lee, burlesque entertainer; 1913 Richard Nixon, 37th US president and first to resign; 1920 Clive Dunn OBE, comic actor; 1925 Lee Van Cleef, actor in westerns; 1929 Brian Friel, Irish dramatist; 1939 Susannah York, actress.
Deaths: 1923 Katherine Mansfield, short story writer; 1948 Caroline Herschel, astronomer; 1975 John slater, actor (Z Cars); 1980 Sir Charles Curran, BBC director-general; 1987 Arthur Lake, actor; 1995 Peter Cook, satirist; 1999 Sir Alastair Blair, captain (1982-84), Queen’s Body Guard for Scotland, Royal Company of Archers; 2000 Nigel Tranter, Scottish historian and author; 2008 Sir John Harvey-Jones, chairman of ICI 1982 to 1987 and TV presenter; 2012 Brian Curvis, British welterweight boxing champion.