EVENTS, birthdays, anniversaries
National days of India and Australia
1340: English King Edward III was proclaimed king of France.
1348: Black Death began in England.
1531: Lisbon was struck by an earthquake, leading to around 30,000 deaths.
1788: The first consignment of convicts from England arrived in Australia, at Sydney Cove.
1790: Mozart’s opera Cosi Fan Tutte premiered at the Burgtheater in Vienna.
1828: Duke of Wellington became Conservative prime minister.
1837: Michigan was admitted as the 26th US state.
1841: British sovereignty was proclaimed over Hong Kong.
1871: The Rugby Football Union was founded in London.
1875: The electric dental drill was patented by George F Green.
1905: The Cullinan diamond, the largest in the world, weighing more than 1lb 4oz, was found at the Premier Mine in Pretoria, South Africa, by Captain Wells.
1908: The 1st Glasgow Boy Scout troop was registered, the first to be formed.
1926: The BBC broadcast the first shipping forecasts.
1931: Mahatma Gandhi was released from prison in India for discussions with government.
1934: Germany signed ten-year non-aggression pact with Poland.
1939: Filming began on the epic movie Gone with the Wind.
1942: First US expeditionary force arrived in Europe, with troops put ashore in Northern Ireland.
1950: India proclaimed a republic within the Commonwealth.
1952: Famed Shepheard Hotel in Cairo, Egypt, was burned during riots by mobs demanding British withdrawal from Suez.
1968: The National Provincial and Westminster Banks merged, under the name National Westminster Bank.
1982: Unemployment in Britain rose above three million for the first time since the 1930s.
1991: Seven Iraqi warplanes flew to Iran and Pentagon said at least two dozen had landed there in recent days.
1993: Chancellor Norman Lamont cut interest rates to 6 per cent, the lowest level for more than 15 years.
1998: US president Bill Clinton went on television to deny that he had had an affair with Monica Lewinsky, a member of the White House staff.
2001: An earthquake hit Gujarat, India, killing more than 20,000 people.
2004: President Hamid Karzai signed the new constitution of Afghanistan.
2009: Steelmaker Corus confirmed that it was to cut 3,500 jobs worldwide, including around 2,500 in the UK.
2009: Iceland’s coalition government collapsed under the strain of the global economic, with the whole cabinet resigning.
2011: Former MSP Tommy Sheridan was jailed for three years for committing perjury.
2015: Libby Lane was ordained as the first female priest of the Church of England.
Births: 1714 Jean-Baptiste Pigalle, sculptor; 1880 General Douglas MacArthur, American commander in South-west Pacific; 1908 Stephane Grappelli, jazz violinist; 1922 Michael Bentine, founder member of The Goon Show; 1925 Paul Newman, actor; 1928 Roger Vadim, film director; 1945 Jacqueline du Pré, cellist.
Deaths: 1823 Edward Jenner, vaccination pioneer; 1850 Francis, Lord Jeffrey, founder and editor of the Edinburgh Review; 1878 Kirkpatrick Macmillan, Dumfriesshire inventor of the bicycle; 2003 Viscount Younger of Leckie, politician; 2012 Alex Eadie, Labour MP 1966-92.