Events, birthdays and anniversaries for 10 December
Grouse shooting season ends today.
1520: Martin Luther burned the Papal Bull excommunicating him from Roman Catholic Church.
1756: Robert Clive took Fulta, India, relieving British fugitives.
1768: The Royal Academy of Arts was founded. Joshua Reynolds first president.
1845: Pneumatic tyres patented by Scottish civil engineer Robert Thomson.
1868: First edition of Whitaker’s Almanack was published.
1868: London’s first traffic lights began functioning at Bridge Street, near Parliament Square.
1898: Treaty of Paris between United States and Spain, ending the Spanish-American War.
1901: Nobel prizes were first awarded. Among them was a chemistry prize for Marie Curie.
1902: The Aswan Dam on the Nile opened.
1907: Rudyard Kipling awarded the Nobel prize for literature, the first British writer to receive it.
1919: The Smith brothers, aviation pioneers, completed first flight from Britain to Australia.
1921: Albert Einstein won Nobel prize for physics.
1928: Piccadilly Circus Underground station opened.
1937: Thirty-five passengers were killed and 179 injured in rail crash when points were blocked by snow on the Edinburgh-Glasgow line.
1941: British battleships Repulse and Prince of Wales were sunk off Malaya by Japanese aircraft.
1948: United Nations General Assembly adopted Convention on Genocide and Human Rights.
1963: Zanzibar became independent, after being a British protectorate since 1890.
1967: Former Cunard liner Queen Mary docked at Long Beach, California, at the end of her final cruise, to become a floating hotel.
1989: Czechoslovakia’s first non-communist government for 41 years came to power.
1993: The last shift left Wearmouth Colliery in Sunderland. The closure of the 156-year-old pit marked the end of a coalfield which had been in operation since the Middle Ages.
2007: Former Daily Telegraph owner, Lord Black, was jailed for six and a half years in the US for stealing £3 million from the newspaper empire he built.
2010: 14.9 million people tuned in to watch the live episode of Coronation Street which marked the show’s 50th anniversary.
Ann Gloag OBE, co-founder, Stagecoach Holdings, 72; Kenneth Branagh, actor and director, 54; Lord Birt, BBC director-general, 1992-2000, 70; Alain de Botton, writer, 45; Roger De Courcey, ventriloquist, 70; Susan Dey, actress, 62; Paul Hardcastle, music producer, 57; Jahangir Khan, squash player, 51; Raphael Maklouf, sculptor, 77; Summer Phoenix, actress, 36; Meg White, drummer (The White Stripes), 40; Susanna Reid, journalist and TV presenter, 44; Wilfried Bony, footballer, 26; Scarlett Bowman, actress (Hollyoaks), 29; Charlie Adam, Scottish footballer, 29; Fionnula Flanagan, actress, 73.
Births: 1815 Ada Lovelace, mathematician, writer and the world’s first computer programmer; 1824 George MacDonald, Scottish minister, poet, author and mentor of Lewis Carroll; 1830 Emily Dickinson, American poet; 1914 Dorothy Lamour, actress and singer.
Deaths: 1747 Duncan Forbes of Culloden; 1865 Leopold I, the first king of the Belgians; 1896 Alfred Nobel, Swedish chemist and philanthropist, inventor of dynamite; 1928 Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Scottish architect.