Events, birthdays and anniversaries from 7 November
National day of Russia.
1872: The ill-fated 282-ton brigantine Mary Celeste set sail from New York for Genoa – a month later she was found sailing in the Atlantic near the Azores but with no-one on board.
1908: Professor Ernest Rutherford announced that he had discovered the atom.
1916: Jeanette Rankin, from Montana, was elected first woman member of US Congress.
1917: Bolshevik Revolution, led by Lenin, overthrew Kerensky government and began setting up world’s first communist state.
1944: Franklin D Roosevelt re-elected US President for record fourth time.
1956: Britain and France declared ceasefire in Egypt, but Britain said it would evacuate troops only on arrival of United Nations Emergency Force.
1967: Henry Cooper beat Billy Walker and became the only boxer to win three Lonsdale belts outright.
1972: Richard Nixon was elected 37th US president. He became the only president to resign.
1974: Lord Lucan disappeared the same night his children’s nanny was murdered and his wife seriously assaulted at their home in London.
1975: The Scottish Daily News ceased publication after six months.
1989: Paul Boateng became first black MP to be appointed to Opposition front bench.
1990: Mary Robinson, liberal feminist lawyer, was elected as Ireland’s first woman president.
1996: A scathing report into remand suicides at woman-only Cornton Vale Prison, Stirling, blamed an increase in drug-abusing women which stretched staff resources.
2006: Three hundred soldiers executed in the First World War for offences including cowardice and desertion were pardoned with the passing of the Armed Forces Act. The campaign had been led by the family of Private Henry Farr, who was shot at dawn.
2008: Labour won the Glenrothes by-election. Lindsay Roy was elected the new MP with a majority of 6,737. Gordon Brown, the prime minister, said victory in the Fife seat was a vote of confidence in the government’s handling of the economic crisis.
2011: Michael Jackson’s personal physician, Dr Conrad Murray, was found guilty of the involuntary manslaughter of the star by a jury in Los Angeles.
Sharleen Spiteri, Scottish singer, 46; Ian Balding, racehorse trainer, 75; John Barnes MBE, footballer and coach, 50; Lindsay Duncan CBE, Edinburgh-born actress, 63; Rio Ferdinand, footballer, 35; Dr Billy Graham KBE, evangelist, 95; Lucinda Green MBE three-day eventer, 60; Neil Hannon, singer, 43; Dame Gwyneth Jones DBE, soprano, 77; Joni Mitchell (born Roberta Anderson), folk singer, 70; Jonathan Palmer, racing driver, 57; Su Pollard, actress, 64; Jean Shrimpton, model and actress, 71.
Births: 1867 Marie Curie, scientist; 1879 Leon Trotsky, Russian Revolution leader; 1913 Albert Camus, French novelist and playwright; 1917 Helen Suzman, South African politician; 1926 Dame Joan Sutherland DBE, soprano.
Deaths: 1910 Leo Tolstoy, novelist; 1962 Eleanor Roosevelt, niece of Theodore and wife of Franklin; 1974 Eric Linklater, novelist; 1980 Steve McQueen, actor; 1990 Lawrence Durrell, novelist; 1998 Lord Hunt, soldier, author, leader of the successful British Everest expedition 1952-53.