Events, birthdays and anniversaries on 12 September
1215: English king Henry II and French prince Louis signed a peace treaty.
1440: Eton College was founded by Henry VI for 25 poor and needy scholars. Prefects were warned to look out for “ill-kempt heads, unwashed faces, foul clothes”.
1624: Dutch innovator Cornelis Drebbel demonstrated an early version of a navigable submarine to King James I and several thousand onlookers on the Thames in London. The vessel could remain underwater for three hours and travelled from Westminster to Greenwich.
1848: Switzerland adopted new constitution as a federal union with strong central government.
1879: Cleopatra’s Needle, an ancient Egyptian obelisk, 68ft 6in high in red granite, was presented to Britain and erected on the Thames Embankment.
1890: British South Africa Company founded Salisbury in Mashonaland, Rhodesia.
1895: The first successful controlled glider flight in Britain was made by Percy Sinclair Pilcher at Wallacetown Farm, Cardross, when he rose 12ft in a 45lb monoplane he built himself.
1910: First policewoman was appointed – Alice Wells of the Los Angeles police department.
1935: The American multi-millionaire Howard Hughes achieved the first of several aviation records he established before going into self-enforced seclusion. He flew a plane of his own design at 352.46mph.
1940: Four teenage boys followed their dog down a tunnel hidden in woods near Lascaux in the Dordogne region of France, and discovered 17,000-year-old Paleolithic cave paintings. It is now a World Heritage Site.
1944: First US troops reached German soil in Second World War.
1953: Nikita Khrushchev became first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party.
1959: The TV series Bonanza was first broadcast by NBC.
1960: MoT tests were introduced for cars in Britain.
1970: Concorde landed at Heathrow, London, for the first time, to a barrage of complaints about noise.
1974: Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie was deposed by leaders of the armed forces.
1979: Indonesia was struck by an earthquake measuring 8.1 on the Richter scale.
1989: Poland elected its first non-Communist government since the Second World War.
1995: Michael Hutchence of INXS pleaded guilty to punching a photographer.
2000: The Netherlands passed a law allowing same-gender marriages, divorce and adoption.
2003: In Fallujah, US forces mistakenly shot and killed eight Iraqi police officers.
2005: Hong Kong’s Disneyland opened.
2012: Excavators announced that they may have found the remains of King Richard III buried under a car park in Leicester.
2015: Jeremy Corbyn was elected as Labour Party leader