EVENTS, birthdays, anniversaries
National day of Kenya
1642: Dutch navigator Abel Tasman discovered New Zealand.
1800: Washington was established as the capital of USA.
1858: The first Canadian coins – 1 cent, 5 cents, 10 cents and 20 cents – went into circulation.
1878: Joseph Pulitzer began publishing the St Louis Dispatch.
1890: First electric underground train opened in London.
1894: Japanese troops invaded Korea.
1899: George F Bryant of Boston patented the wooden golf tee.
1901: The first transatlantic wireless message was sent from Cornwall, 1,800 miles to St John’s, Newfoundland, where it was received by Marconi. It was the letter “s”.
1911: King George V was crowned Emperor of India and founded New Delhi to replace Calcutta as the Indian capital.
1915: The German Junkers J1, the first all-metal aeroplane, was test flown at Dessau.
1917: A train carrying French troops home from Italy crashed at Modane, France, after a brake failure. The death toll was reported to be 543 - the world’s worst railway accident to that date.
1925: The world’s first motel opened in California.
1932: USSR and China resumed diplomatic relations1941: Soviet forces launched their first major counter-attack against the German invasion.
1936: Chinese leader Chiang Kai-Shek declared war on Japan.
1948: Conscription was introduced in Britain for men aged between 18 and 26.
1955: The hovercraft, or air cushion vehicle, was patented in Britain by Christopher Cockerell.
1959: Britain’s Stirling Moss won the US Grand Prix, the final race of the season, but Australia’s Jack Brabham topped the final table, winning the World Drivers Championship by four points.
1963: Kenya attained independence, with Jomo Kenyatta as first prime minister.
1963: Argentina requested the extradition of former dictator Juan Peron from Spain, to face trial on a charge of raping a 14-year-old girl.
1963: Frank Sinatra Junior was returned by kidnappers after his father had paid a $240,000 ransom.
1965: The Beatles played their last concert in the UK at the Capitol Theatre, Cardiff.
1977: Women were elected to Jockey Club for first time.
1982: Mass protest at Greenham Common by 20,000 women at the deployment of American nuclear cruise missiles in Berkshire. The women clasped hands to encircle the airbase.
1988: A train crash at Clapham Junction killed 36 people and injured 113 when a commuter train hit the rear of another train.
1992: The Princess Royal married Commander Tim Laurence.
1996: Thomas “TC” Campbell was freed pending an appeal after serving 12 years of a life sentence for murder of six members of a family in Glasgow ice-cream wars.
2001: Actress Winona Ryder was arrested for shoplifting in Beverly Hills, California. She was sentenced to three years’ probation and fined $3,700.
2007: Al-Qaeda car bombers killed 67 people in two explosions in Algiers.
2003: Paul Martin became the 21st prime minister of Canada.
Births: 1731 Erasmus Darwin, scientist and poet; 1821 Gustave Flaubert, novelist; 1863 Edvard Munch, artist; 1893 Edward G Robinson, actor; 1900 Sammy Davis snr, dancer; 1915 Frank Sinatra, singer and actor; 1929 John Osborne, playwright; 1943 Grover Washington Jnr, jazz saxophonist.
Deaths: 1600 John Craig, Kirk leader; 1889 Robert Browning, poet; 1968 Tallulah Bankhead, actress; 1985 Ann Baxter, actress; 1999 Joseph Heller, author (Catch-22); 2011 John Gardner CBE, composer.