Events, birthdays and anniversaries on 23 July.
776 BC: The first Olympic Games opened in Olympia. The foot race was won by Koroibos, a cook.
636 AD: Arabs gained control of most of Palestine from the Byzantine empire.
685: John V began his reign as Catholic Pope.
1148: The Crusaders attacked Damascus.
1595: Spanish landed in Cornwall and burned Mousehole and Penzance before returning to their ships.
1745: Prince Charles Edward Stuart, the “Young Pretender”, landed on Eriskay.
1914: Austria and Hungary issued ultimatum to Serbia after assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
1920: British East Africa was renamed Kenya and became British Crown colony.
1921: The Chinese Communist party was formed.
1940: The Local Defence Volunteers were renamed by Winston Churchill as the Home Guard.
1940: The London blitz began with an all-night German air raid.
1944: The Russian army marched into Lublin, Poland.
1945: Marshal Henri Philippe Petain, head of state of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944, was put on trial. He died on the same date in 1951 while serving a life sentence for collaboration.
1946: Menachem Begin’s zionist militant group, Irgun, bombed the King David Hotel, the British administrative HQ for Palestine.
1949: Brian Close became the youngest Test cricketer when he played against New Zealand at Old Trafford. He was 18 years, 149 days old.
1952: General Mohammed Neguib seized power in Egypt.
1954: Indochina settlement was approved by France’s National Assembly.
1955: Donald Campbell broke the world water speed record on Ullswater when he reached 202.32mph in Bluebird.
1973: President Richard Nixon refused to release tapes of conversations at the White House as part of the Watergate investigation.
1980: Soyuz 37 ferried two cosmonauts (one Vietnamese) to Salyut 6.
1986: Prince Andrew married Sarah Ferguson in Westminster Abbey, and was made Duke of York following a 600-year-old English tradition for the monarch’s second son.
1988: Iran accused Iraq of pushing deep into Iranian territory and using chemical weapons.
1989: Mark Calcavecchia shot 275 at Royal Troon to win the Open Championship.
1991: Sellafield, Cumbria, was chosen by Nirex as site for deep underground depository for low-level radioactive nuclear waste.
1992: Bruce Springsteen began a world tour.
1994: Space Shuttle Columbia 17 landed after a record 14 days, 55 minutes.
1995: Comet Hale-Bopp was discovered.
1995: Jon Daly scored 282 to win the Open Championship at St Andrews.
2005: Three terrorist bombs killed 88 people in the Egyptian tourist resort of Sharm-el-Sheikh.Births: 1823 Coventry Patmore, poet;; 1886 Sir Arthur Whitten Brown, Glasgow-born aviator and companion of Alcock on first transatlantic flight; 1888 Raymond Chandler, American writer; 1892 Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia 1913 Michael Foot; 1913 1942 Myra Hindley, Moors murderer; ; 1967 Philip Seymour Hoffman, American actor.
Deaths: 1403 Sir Henry Percy (“Harry Hotspur”), medieval nobleman; 1875 Isaac Singer, inventor of the sewing machine; 1916 Sir William Ramsay, Glasgow-born chemist who discovered inert gases; 2011 Amy Winehouse, British singer-songwriter; 2012 Sally Ride, astronaut.