EVENTS, birthdays and anniversaries.
1485: The Yeomen of the Guard were established by King Henry VII.
1580: Sir Francis Drake arrived at Plymouth in the Golden Hind after his circumnavigation of the world.
1817: Simon Bolivar organised independent government in Venezuela.
1905: Aspirin pain reliever first went on sale in Britain.
1914: Battle of Ypres began.
1918: Czechoslovakia proclaimed an independent republic.
1922: Fascist march on Rome of Benito Mussolini’s black-shirted army. Their arrival gained him the dictatorship of Italy. On 30 October, 1934, Mussolini ordered all six-year-olds to join up for pre-army training.
1925: John Logie Baird, from his attic workshop in London, produced the first moving image on his television screen.
1932: Violence broke out at a rally of the unemployed in Trafalgar Square, London.
1938: Orson Welles’s radio version of HG Wells’s The War Of The Worlds on American radio caused panic. News of the Martian invasion was so realistic that many listeners believed it.
1974: Muhammad Ali knocked out George Foreman in the eighth round in Zaire to regain the world heavyweight title.
1987: IRA arms ship, The Eksund, was intercepted by French police en voyage from Libya, with 150-tonne cargo worth £3.7m.
1989: Leaked cabinet memo warned of 30,000 pit job losses and price rises after electricity privatisation.
1990: Tunnelling crews under the English Channel linked up for the first time when French workers drilled a two-inch pilot hole through to the British side of a service tunnel.
1992: A car bomb exploded yards from Downing Street after IRA gunmen kidnapped a taxi driver and forced him to drive with the device to Whitehall.
1994: The Most Rev Thomas Winning, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Glasgow, was made a cardinal.
1995: Quebec sovereignists narrowly lost a referendum for a mandate to negotiate independence from Canada (50.6 per cent to 49.4 per cent).
2009: The UK Government’s chief adviser on drugs was forced to resign after he claimed ecstasy and LSD were less harmful than alcohol.
Juliet Stevenson CBE, actress, 58; Richard Alston CBE, choreographer, 66; Sir Ian McGeechan OBE, former Scotland rugby player and coach, 68; Diego Maradona, footballer and manager, 54; Grace Slick, rock singer (Jefferson Airplane), 75; Gavin Rossdale, singer and guitarist, 49; Ivanka Trump, businesswoman, former model, 33; Courtney Walsh, cricketer, 52; Bob Wilson OBE, Scottish broadcaster and former footballer, 73; Henry Winkler OBE, actor, 69; Matthew Morrison, actor, dancer, musician, 36; Nastia Liukin, Olympic all-round individual gymnastic champion, 25; Otis Williams, singer (The Temptations, 73); Timothy B Schmidt, musician, (The Eagles), 67.
Births: 1821 Feodor Dostoyevsky, novelist; 1839 Alfred Sisley, Impressionist painter; 1885 Ezra Pound, poet; 1893 Charles Atlas, bodybuilder; 1911 Ruth Hussey, actress; 1930 Clifford Brown, jazz trumpeter; 1932 Louis Malle, film director and producer.
Deaths: 1823 Edmund Cartwright, inventor of power loom; 1872 John Chubb, locksmith; 1923 Andrew Bonar Law, British prime minister; 1959 Jim Mollison, Scottish aviator.