EVENTS, birthdays, anniversaries
1174: William I of Scotland was captured at Alnwick by forces loyal to Henry II of England.
1249: Alexander III crowned at Scone.
1469: James III of Scotland married Margaret of Denmark at Holyrood Abbey.
1837: Queen Victoria moved into Buckingham Palace, the first monarch to live there.
1772: Captain James Cook began his second voyage aboard Resolution to search for Terra Australis (the southern continent).
1820: First day of the trial, held in Stirling, of the Radicals captured at the Battle of Bonnymuir, charged with treason. John Baird and Andrew Hardie were subsequently executed.
1837: Queen Victoria became the first monarch to live in the present-day Buckingham Palace.
1860: Last British naval execution at the yard-arm took place, aboard HMS Leven in the River Yangste. The victim was Marine Private John Dalliger.
1865: Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune, told his readers “Go west, young man”.
1868: Scotch Reform Act was passed, creating seven additional Scottish seats in the House of Commons at the expense of English ones, and giving the vote to all male householders.
1908: The fourth Olympic Games opened in London.
1919: The British dirigible R34 arrived in Norfolk after the first transatlantic round flight, having left East Fortune, in East Lothian, on 2 July.
1923: The “Hollywoodland” sign above Hollywood was officially dedicated. The last four letters dropped off in 1949.
1930: The first World Cup football tournament began in Uruguay. The host nation won.
1933: All political parties were banned in Germany, except the Nazis.
1942: German occupiers imprisoned 800 prominent Dutch nationals as hostages.
1943: History’s greatest tank battle ended with Russia’s defeat of Germany at Kursk where 6,000 tanks took part; 2,900 were lost by Germany.
1949: Pope Pius XII excommunicated communist Catholics.
1955: Ruth Ellis, the last woman to be executed in Britain, was hanged at Hollowat Prison, London.
1960: The US Democratic Convention nominated John F Kennedy as their presidential candidate.
1962: Harold Macmillan’s so-called “Night of the Long Knives” as he sacked seven cabinet ministers, including chancellor Selwyn Lloyd.
1962: Arnold Palmer shot 276 at Royal Troon to win the Open championship.
1968: Gary Player shot 289 at Carnoustie to win the Open Championship.
1969: Russia launched the unmanned Luna 15 spacecraft to the moon.
1985: Live Aid concerts in Britain and America raised more than £50m for famine victims in Africa.
1990: Wallace Mercer, the Hearts chairman, dropped his £6.1m takeover bid for Hibernian.
1994: OJ Simpson gave samples of his hair for testing after being charged with murder.
2007: The BBC apologised to the Queen after admitting that a promotional trailer for a television programme appeared to show that she had stormed off in a huff from a shoot with American photographer Annie Leibovitz.
2011: Mumbai, India was rocked by three bomb blasts during the evening rush hour, killing 26 people and injuring 130.
2012: Scottish Football League clubs voted in favour of a newco Rangers football club playing in Division Three.
Sir Patrick Stewart OBE, actor, 75; Cameron Crowe, film director, 58; Harrison Ford, actor, 73; Matthew Hart, dancer and choreographer, 43; Ian Hislop, editor, Private Eye, and broadcaster, 55; Roger McGuinn, musician (The Byrds), 73; Bryan Murray, actor, 66; Erno Rubik, Rubik’s Cube inventor, 71; Chris Serle, broadcaster, 72; Michael Spinks, boxer, 59; David Storey, novelist, 82; Tulisa Contostavlos, singer-songwriter, 27; Didi Conn, actress, 64.
Births: 1779 William Hedley, locomotive engineer; 1793 John Clare, poet; 1859 Sidney J Webb, first Lord Passfield, social reformer; 1911 Eric Williams, prisoner-of-war escapee and author; 1928 Bob Crane, actor; 1933 Patsy Byrne, actress.
Deaths: 574 Pope John 111; 939 Pope Leo V11; 1205 Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury; 1762 James Bradley, Astronomer Royal; 1793 Jean Paul Marat, French revolutionary leader; 1951 Arnold Schöenberg, composer; 1958 Karl Erb, tenor; 1967 Tommy Simpson, cyclist; 2002 Yousuf Karsh, photographer; 2006 Red Buttons, actor and comedian; 2012 Richard Darryl Zanuck, film producer; 2013 Nadine Gordimer, Nobel Prize-winning novelist; 2014 Lorin Maazel, American conductor, 84.