Events, birthdays and anniversaries for 29 July
1030: St Olaf, King of Norway, was killed in battle. Several churches in Shetland and Orkney were dedicated to him.
1565: Mary, Queen of Scots, married her cousin Lord Darnley, in the Old Abbey Chapel at Palace of Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh.
1567: James VI crowned at Stirling.
1588: The Spanish Armada was sighted off Cornwall. It was defeated by the English fleet under Howard and Drake, the battle beginning off Plymouth.
1900: Umberto I, King of Italy from 1878, was assassinated at Monza by anarchists.
1911: Dual control aircraft were introduced at Eastchurch, England, for use in training of Territorial Army pilots.
1921: All-India Congress decided to boycott Prince of Wales’s visit to India.
1921: Adolf Hitler was elected president of National Socialist German Workers’ Party.
1922: Music hall artist Will Hay was the first comedian on British radio, when excerpts from a forthcoming show at the Apollo Theatre were broadcast on a programme called Listening In.
1945: The BBC Light Programme began broadcasting.
1948: The 14th Olympic Games opened at Wembley, and were to become known as the wettest ever held.
1949: The BBC televised the first regular weather forecast.
1959: Hawaii voted for first time as one of United States, and elected first Orientals to be seated in United States Congress.
1973: Voters in Greece endorsed decisions by their leaders to abolish Greek monarchy and install George Papadopoulos as president.
1981: The Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer were married at Westminster Abbey.
1986: South Africa’s president PW Botha rejected British foreign secretary’s plea for unconditional release of Nelson Mandela.
1989: London Weather Centre announced that 1989 had reached the record for the sunniest summer of the century.
1990: South Africa’s Communist Party was relaunched after 40 years underground. Nelson Mandela urged a peaceful transition to democracy and the dismantling of apartheid.
1992: Chris Boardman became the first British cyclist for 84 years to win an individual Olympic gold medal when he won the 4,000 metres pursuit on his revolutionary “superbike” in Barcelona.
2009: A tornado hit Stornoway, causing widespread damage.
2010: A very rare broadsword to commemorate the carrying of Robert the Bruce’s heart on crusade fetched £10,800 at auction.
Sally Gunnell, Olympic, world, Commonwealth and European champion athlete and broadcaster, 47; Fernando Alonso, world motor racing champion 2005-6, 32; Stephen Dorff, actor, 40; Lord Kilpatrick of Kincraig CBE, pharmacologist, president, General Medical Council 1989-1995, 87; Joe Johnson, snooker player, 61; Diane Keen, actress, 67; Andi Peters, television presenter, 43.
Births: 1841 Armauer Hansen, Norwegian physician, discoverer of bacillus causing leprosy; 1883 Benito Mussolini, Italian dictator; 1913 Lord Grimond, Liberal politician.
Deaths: 1833 William Wilberforce, anti-slave trade philanthropist; 1890 Vincent Van Gogh, painter (two days after shooting himself); 1970 Sir John Barbirolli, conductor and musical director; 1983 David Niven, actor; 1983 Luis Buñuel, film director.