EVENTS, anniversaries and birthdays for 2 January
1492: Spain captured Granada from Moors.
1757: Clive of India captured Calcutta after it had been seized by the Nawab of Bengal, who imprisoned 146 British prisoners in the notorious “black hole” – only 23 survived.
1799: Britain joined Russian-Turkish alliance.
1839: First pictures of the Moon taken by Frenchman Louis Daguerre.
1870: Lady Gough’s Book of Etiquette published. It forbade the placing of books by male authors next to those written by female authors on any bookshelf – unless the authors were married.
1901: The first municipal crematorium was opened, in Hull.
1905: Russians surrendered Manchurian city of Port Arthur to Japanese.
1932: Manchukuo Republic was proclaimed in Manchuria.
1933: Anarchists and Syndicalists uprising started in Barcelona.
1942: Philippines capital of Manila was captured by Japanese.
1943: Germans began withdrawal from Caucasus.
1946: Deposed King Zog of Albania fled the country.
1971: Ibrox Park disaster in Glasgow as stair barriers collapsed – 66 died and 200 injured.
1976: Soviet Union hardened stand on emigration in spite of 1975 Helsinki Agreement to permit freer movement of people and ideas in Europe.
1976: Platinum hallmarks were introduced.
1987: The publishers of Enid Blyton’s Noddy books bowed to pressure groups and agreed to expunge all “racism” from them. Golliwogs would now become gnomes.
1988: Right-wing guerrillas ambushed train near Mozambique’s western border, killing at least 22 and injuring 71.
1998: The home secretary, Jack Straw, was named as the Cabinet minister whose son was involved in drug dealing allegations.
2002: Eduardo Duhalde was appointed interim president of Argentina by the Legislative Assembly.
2004: Stardust successfully flew past Comet Wild 2, collecting samples that were returned to Earth.
2006: An explosion in a coal mine in Sago, West Virginia trapped and killed 12 miners, while leaving one in a critical condition.
2011: The Open University celebrated the 40th anniversary of its first lecture broadcast on BBC television. Seven-thousand OU programmes have been aired in that time.
Christy Turlington, model, 45; David Bailey CBE, photographer, 75; Kate Bosworth, actress, 31; Lucy Davis, actress, 41; Scott Gemmill, footballer, 43; Cuba Gooding Jr, actor, 46; David Graveney, cricketer and Test selector, 60; Shelley Hennig, actress, 27; Sir Michael Hirst, MP 1983-87, 68; James Marshall, actor, 47.
Births: 1727 General James Wolfe, British soldier and hero of the Battle of Quebec; 1868 Arthur Gore, Wimbledon tennis champion; 1905 Sir Michael Tippett, composer.
Deaths: AD17 Ovid (Publius Ovidus Naso), poet; 1883 General Tom Thumb (Charles Sherwood Stratton), 31-inch midget who was exhibited by PT Barnum; 1892 Sir George Airy, Astronomer Royal; 1946 Eleanor Rathbone, social reformer; 1982 Sir Thomas Galbraith, MP; 1983 Dick Emery, comedian; 1998 Frank Muir, writer/broadcaster; 2007, George Macdonald Fraser, writer; 2011 Pete Postlethwaite OBE, actor.