Events, birthdays and anniversaries from 25 July
National day of Colombia.
1705: Act passed for establishing herring fishing in and around Scotland.
1837: London’s first railway station, Euston, opened. Its huge Doric arch was described as “mightier than the pyramids of Egypt.”
1885: Professional football was legalised by the Football Association.
1917: Finland declared independence from Russia.
1944: An assassination attempt on Hitler was made by a German staff officer, Count Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg, at Rastenberg, East Prussia. He and 1,000 others implicated in the plot were summarily executed.
1951: Jordan’s King Abdullah was assassinated in Jerusalem.
1957: At a meeting in Bradford, prime minister Harold Macmillan said: “Let’s be frank about it. Most of our people have never had it so good.” He later repeated it in the House of Commons.
1958: United Arab Republic severed relations with Jordan.
1962: The first regular hovercraft passenger service was inaugurated, on the Dee Estuary between Wallasey and Rhyl.
1969: Eagle, the lunar module of Apollo 11, landed on the Moon, on the Sea of Tranquillity.
1974: Turkey invaded Cyprus with powerful land, sea and air forces.
1976: Viking 1, the American unmanned spacecraft, touched down on Mars after an 11-month journey and began sending back clear pictures.
1982: IRA bombs killed ten soldiers and seven army horses at Hyde Park and Regents Park, London. Fifty-three were injured.
1990: A terrorist bomb blasted the London Stock Exchange. There were no casualties and little disruption to trading.
1992: Kevin Maxwell was ordered to pay £406mn damages to the liquidators of Bishopsgate Investment Management for alleged breaches of his duty as a director of the company.
1993: The King of Thailand pardoned Patricia Cahill and Karyn Smith, two British women convicted of heroin smuggling in 1990.
1994: John Major announced the biggest government reshuffle since he became prime minister, dropping four Cabinet ministers.
2007: The Crown Prosecution Service announced that no-one would be prosecuted as a result of the 16-month “cash-for-honours” investigation during which the prime minister, Tony Blair, was questioned by Scotland Yard.
Dame Diana Rigg, actress, 75; Gisele Bündchen, supermodel, 33; Kim Carnes, singer and actress, 68; Paul Cook, rock drummer (Sex Pistols) and composer, 57; Jacques Delors, president, European Commission 1985-95, 88; Sally Ann Howes, actress, 83; Roger Hunt MBE, footballer, 75; John Lodge, rock bassist (Moody Blues), 68; Charlie Magri, former WBC British flyweight boxing champion, 57; Jonathon Morris, actor, 53; Carlos Santana, musician, 66.
Births: 1889 Lord Reith, first director-general of the BBC (Stonehaven); 1919 Sir Edmund Hillary, beekeeper, first person to reach the summit of Mount Everest in May 1953; 1920 6th Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair, artist and critic; 1938 Natalie Wood, actress; 1943 Wendy Richard MBE, actress.
Deaths: 1903 Pope Leo XIII; 1923 Pancho Villa, revolutionary leader; 1937 Guglielmo Marconi, physicist and wireless telegraphy pioneer; 1973 Bruce Lee, Kung-fu actor; 2011 Lucian Freud, artist; 2012 Simon Ward, actor; 2012 Sir Alastair Burnet, broadcaster.