Events, birthdays and anniversaries for 7 November
National day of Russia.
1783: Last of some 50,000 public hangings at Tyburn (now Marble Arch, London).
1865: The Erie, first pocket lighter, was manufactured.
1872: The 282-ton brigantine Mary Celeste set sail from New York for Genoa – a month later she was found near the Azores with no-one on board.
1885: Canadian Pacific Railway, the first trans-Canada line, was completed after four years six months with the last spike at Craigellachie in British Columbia.
1908: Professor Ernest Rutherford announced that he had discovered the atom.
1916: Jeanette Rankin, from Montana, was elected first woman member of US Congress.
1917: Bolshevik Revolution, led by Lenin, overthrew Kerensky government and began setting up world’s first communist state.
1921: Benito Mussolini declared himself Il Duce, leader of the Italian National Fascist Party.
1945: Flying over Herne Bay, Kent, a British RAF Gloster Meteor jet reached a record speed of 606mph.
1967: Henry Cooper beat Billy Walker to become the only boxer to win three Lonsdale belts outright.
1972: Richard Nixon was elected 37th United States president.
1974: Lord Lucan disappeared the night his children’s nanny was murdered and his wife seriously assaulted at their London home.
1975: The Scottish Daily News ceased publication after six months.
1988: Sugar Ray Leonard completed collection of world titles at five different weights by knocking out Donny Lalonde.
1989: Paul Boateng became first black MP to be appointed to Opposition front bench.
1990: Mary Robinson, liberal feminist lawyer, was elected as Ireland’s first woman president.
1990: Terry Marsh, former world light welterweight boxing champion, acquitted of attempting to murder his former manager Frank Warren.
1994: Irish Republic announced it would be releasing up to 30 IRA prisoners before Christmas.
1995: Four British businessmen convicted of sending arms parts to Iraq via Jordan had their convictions quashed.
1996: A scathing report into remand suicides at women-only Cornton Vale Prison, Stirling, blamed a rise in drug-abusers which stretched staff resources.
2003: Michael Howard replaced Iain Duncan Smith as leader of the Conservative Party.
2006: Three hundred soldiers executed in the First World War for offences including cowardice and desertion were pardoned with the Armed Forces Act’s passing.
2008: Labour won the Glenrothes by-election, comfortably holding off a challenge from the SNP. Lindsay Roy was elected the new MP with a majority of 6,737. Prime Minster Gordon Brown said victory in the Fife seat was a vote of confidence in the government’s handling of the economic crisis.
2009: Britain’s David Haye, 29, became the first Briton to hold a world heavyweight crown since Lennox Lewis retired in 2003 when he beat Russian Nikolay Valuev in Nuremberg to claim the WBA heavyweight crown.
2011: Michael Jackson’s personal physician, Dr Conrad Murray, was found guilty of the involuntary manslaughter of the star in Los Angeles. He was later jailed.
Sharleen Spiteri, Scottish rock singer (Texas), 47; Ian Balding, racehorse trainer, 76; John Barnes MBE, footballer and coach, 51; Lindsay Duncan CBE, Edinburgh-born actress, 64; Rio Ferdinand, footballer, 36; Doctor Billy Graham, evangelist, 96; Lucinda Green MBE, three-day eventer, 61; Neil Hannon, musician, 44; Dame Gwyneth Jones DBE, soprano, 78; Joni Mitchell (born Roberta Anderson), Canadian folk singer, 71; Jonathan Palmer, racing driver, 58; Su Pollard, actress, 66; Jean Shrimpton, model and actress, 72; Morgan Spurlock, documentary maker, 44.
Births: 1867 Marie Curie, Polish-French scientist; 1879 Leon Trotsky, Russian Revolution leader; 1905 William Alwyn, composer; 1913 Albert Camus, French novelist and playwright; 1917 Helen Suzman, South African politician; 1924 Wolf Mankowitz, author, playwright and scriptwriter; 1926 Dame Joan Sutherland DBE, soprano.
Deaths: 1783 John Austin, forger (last person to be hanged in public at Tyburn); 1910 Leo Tolstoy, Russian novelist; 1959 Victor McLaglen, film actor; 1962 Eleanor Roosevelt, niece of Theodore and wife of Franklin; 1974 Eric Linklater, novelist; 1975 Cardinal Heenan, Archbishop of Westminster; 1978 Gene Tunney, American heavyweight boxing champion; 1980 Steve McQueen, American film actor; 1990 Tom Clancy, folk singer and actor; 1990 Lawrence Durrell, novelist; 2011 Joe Frazier, American boxer; 2011 Andrea True, American actress and singer (More, More, More); 2013 John Cole, British political editor, BBC 1981-92.