EVENTS, birthdays and anniversaries on July 3.
683: Saint Leo II ended his reign as Catholic Pope.
1250: Louis IX of France was captured by 1583: Russia’s Tsar, Ivan the Terrible, in a fit of rage, killed his son Ivan.
1582: James Crichton of Eliock, a graduate of St Andrews University, a tutor of King James VI and the original “Admirable Crichton”, died in a brawl in Mantua.
1661: Portugal gave Tangier and Bombay to King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland.
1778: British forces massacred 360 settlers – men, women and children – in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania during the American Revolution.
1806: The first cultivated strawberry was exhibited by Michael Keens of Isleworth at a Royal Horticultural Society show.
1844: The last known pair of great auks were killed on the island of Eldey, off Iceland, while incubating an egg.
1863: The Battle of Gettysburg, the longest battle in the American Civil War, ended with victory for the Union.
1883: When the SS Daphne capsized after launch, 124 workers were drowned in the Clyde’s worst accident of its type.
1900: Tsar Nicholas of Russia issued a decree abolishing the banishment of dissidents to Siberia.
1912: Board of Trade inquiry into the Titanic disaster found Captain Edward J Smith, who went down with the White Star liner after it hit an iceberg on its maiden voyage, guilty of negligence.
1928: The world’s first television transmission in colour was made by John Logie Baird, at the Baird Studios in London.
1936: Fred Perry defeated Gottfried von Cramm 6-1, 6-1, 6-0 to win the Wimbledon men’s singles title - the last British winner for 77 years.
1942: German troops marched into Sebastopol, Russia.
1950: United States and North Korean troops clashed for the first time in the Korean War.
1954: Food rationing ended in Britain. Smithfield market opened at midnight instead of 6am to cope with the demand for beef.
1967: News at Ten appeared on UK television for the first time.
1970: Dan-Air flight 1903, flying from Manchester to Barcelona, crashed in Catalonia, northern Spain, killing all 112 people aboard.
1987: Klaus Barbie, the former SS officer known as the “Butcher of Lyon”, was jailed for life for war crimes against humanity in France.
1992: Thirty-one years after their expulsion, South Africa had its Fifa membership reinstated.
1993: Steffi Graf won her fifth Wimbledon ladies singles title – and her third in a row – when she beat Jana Novotna. It was Wimbledon’s 100th ladies final
1996: John Major, the prime minister, announced that the Stone of Destiny would be returned to Scotland, seven centuries after it was taken to England by Edward I.
2002: The FTSE 100 went into freefall, plummeting 154.2 points to close at 4392.6, its lowest close in five years and wiping more than £37 billion off the value of the UK’s biggest companies.
2011: Novak Djokovic won the Wimbledon singles title after beating defending champion Rafael Nadal in four sets.
2013: Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi was deposed by the military. Adly Mansour was appointed interim president.
Tom Cruise, actor, 53; Paul Young, Edinburgh-born actor, 71; Evelyn Anthony, writer, 87; Julie Burchill, journalist, 56; Sir Richard Hadlee MBE, cricketer, 64; Michael Martin, Baron Martin of Springburn, speaker of the House of Commons 2000-09, 70; Susan Penhaligon, actress, 66; Sir Tom Stoppard CBE, playwright, 78; Sebastian Vettel, racing driver, 28; Julian Assange, co-founder of WikiLeaks, 44; Tommy Flanagan, Glasgow-born actor, 50; Tracey Emin CBE, artist, 52; Vince Clarke, musician, 55; Joanne Harris MBE, author, 51; Sian Lloyd, TV weather presenter, 57; Iain MacDonald-Smith, British Olympic sailing champion in 1968, 70; Shane Lynch, singer, 39; Rohinton Mistry, novelist, 63.
Births: 1423 Louis XI of France; 1728 Robert Adam, Kirkcaldy-born architect and designer; 1854 Leos Janécek, composer; 1883 Franz Kafka, novelist; 1923 Baroness Ryder of Warsaw (Sue Ryder), charity worker; 1927 Ken Russell, film maker; 1951 Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier, president of Haiti 1971 to 1986.
Deaths: 1582 James Crichton of Eliock, “the Admirable Crichton”; 1904 Theodor Herzl, Hungarian-born journalist and founder of Zionism; 1969 Brian Jones, Rolling Stone; 1971 Jim Morrison, singer (The Doors); 1989 Jim Backus, actor (and voice of Mr Magoo); 1995 Pancho Gonzales, tennis player; 2001 Billy Liddell, Scottish footballer; 2011 Anna Massey CBE, actress; 2012 Andy Griffith, TV host and actor (Matlock).