Events, birthdays and anniversaries for 18 April
1775: Paul Revere made his famous midnight ride from Charlestown to Lexington to warn Massachusetts patriots of the arrival of British troops at the outbreak of the War of American Independence.
1874: Remains of missionary and explorer David Livingstone were interred in Westminster Abbey.
1906: San Francisco earthquake shattered the city before dawn, killing between 500 and 700 people, destroying 28,000 buildings and causing more than 50 fires.
1934: The first launderette (called a Washateria) was opened in Fort Worth, Texas.
1942: American bombers led by Lieutenant-General James Doolittle attacked Tokyo and other Japanese cities.
1946: International Court of Justice was opened at The Hague.
1946: League of Nations was dissolved and its assets passed to the United Nations.
1949: The first Bob-a-Job Week was inaugurated by the Scout Movement in Britain.
1949: The Republic of Ireland was proclaimed, severing ties with Britain by leaving the Commonwealth.
1954: After seizing power, Colonel Gamal Nasser became prime minister and military governor of Egypt.
1961: George Blake, diplomat and Soviet spy, was charged with espionage under Official Secrets Act.
1962: West Indies Federation was terminated.
1966: The film world’s biggest musical money-maker, The Sound Of Music, won an Oscar, after bringing $60million to the box office in its first year.
1976: About 40,000 Israelis marched into occupied West Bank area of Jordan, demanding that Israel annex the territory.
1978: America and Panama agreed that control of the Panama Canal would revert to Panama by the year 2000.
1985: Postal workers went on strike, abandoning 20 million items of undelivered mail.
1986: Angry crowds formed outside American embassies throughout world as backlash continued against United States air attack on Libya.
1986: Guinness won takeover battle for Distillers.
1987: Journalist John McCarthy was kidnapped in Beirut. He spent more than five years in captivity.
1990: Government announced plans for a privately-funded toll road in Scotland linking the M74 with the M8.
1992: Traverse Theatre’s final performance in its Grassmarket premises in Edinburgh, took place 25 years after it was opened by Jenny Lee, Britain’s first minister of the arts.
1992: Rangers won a fourth successive Scottish Premier League championship.
1993: England won the World Rugby Sevens at Murrayfield.
1994: West Indian batsman Brian Lara broke the record for the highest individual score in Test cricket when he hit 375 off England’s bowlers in Antigua.
1996: More than 100 refugees died when Israel shelled a United Nations peace-keeping base in Lebanon.
2007: A series of bombings, two of them being suicides, exploded in Baghdad, killing 198 and injuring 251.
2011: It was announced that the Queen’s official residence in Scotland, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, was to be utilised to host corporate events.
2013: Britain’s most successful Olympian, cyclist Sir Chris Hoy, announced his retirement from active competition.
David Tennant, Scottish actor, 43; Eamonn Bannon, Scottish footballer, 56; Maria Bello, actress, 47; Ferrera, actress, 30; Haile Gebrselassie, Ethiopian athlete, 41; Roger Graef OBE, documentary producer, 78; Melissa Joan Hart, actress, 38; Rosie Huntington-Whiteley, actress and model, 27; Philip Jackson, Scottish sculptor, 70; Jane Leeves, actress, 53; Hayley Mills, actress, 68; Rick Moranis, actor and comedian, 61; David Spaven, former chairman of Transform Scotland and Scottish Green Party speaker, 62; Sir Teddy Taylor, MP 1980-2005, 77; James Woods, actor, 67.
Births: 1480 Lucrezia Borgia; 1740 Francis Baring, banker and merchant; 1882 Leopold Stokowski, conductor; 1882 Sir Arnold Lunn, skier; 1929 Peter Jeffrey, actor; 1934 Mark Kingston, British actor.
Deaths: 1689 Judge Jeffreys; 1898 Gustave Moreau, painter; 1945 Sir John Fleming, electrical engineer; 1949 Louis Bloomfield, linguist and philologist; 1949 Will Hay, comedy film actor; 1955 Albert Einstein, physicist who propounded theory of relativity; 1964 Ben Hecht, journalist and playwright; 1992 Benny Hill, comedian; 1993 Dame Elisabeth Frink, sculptor; 2002 Doctor Thor Heyerdahl, explorer, anthropologist and author, leader of Kon-Tiki Expedition; 2013 Lieutenant-General Sir Steuart Pringle, Commandant General KCB, Royal Marines 1981-84.