Events, birthdays and anniversaries for 4 July
1700: Truce was signed in war between Russia and Turkey.
1776: The Declaration of Independence was adopted in Philadelphia.
1779: French force took Grenada in West Indies.
1798: Napoleon Bonaparte occupied Alexandria, Egypt.
1802: United States Military Academy at West Point opened with an intake of ten cadets.
1829: The first scheduled horse-drawn bus service was introduced in London.
1840: The Cunard Line began its first Atlantic crossing from Liverpool.
1848: The Communist Manifesto was published by Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels.
1883: The Statue of Liberty was presented to the United States by France.
1892: James Keir Hardie became the first Socialist to win a seat in the British Parliament.
1904: Work began on the construction of the 40-mile Panama Canal.
1937: First successful flight in a helicopter was made by Hanna Reitsch in Germany.
1946: Republic of the Philippines was founded after 47 years of United States rule.
1957: V Molotov, DJ Shepilov and GM Malenkov were expelled from Presidium of Central Committee of Soviet Communist Party.
1968: Alec Rose landed at Portsmouth after sailing single-handed around the world.
1972: North and South Korea renounced use of force and agreed on principles to unify Korea peacefully without outside interference.
1976: Israeli commandoes flew to rescue 103 hostages at Entebbe Airport in Uganda.
1986: Sikh militants killed 12 people in India’s Punjab State.
1988: United States naval team dispatched to Persian Gulf after US destruction of Iranian passenger jetliner killing 290.
1992: Steffi Graf won the ladies singles title at Wimbledon.
1996: The Prince of Wales delivered his divorce terms to the Princess, said to be £15 million.
2004: The cornerstone of Freedom Tower was laid on the site of the World Trade Center, New York City.
2007: BBC correspondent Alan Johnstons freed by Gaza captors after being held for 114 days.
2009: The Statue of Liberty’s crown reopened after security fears following the World Trade Centre attacks.
Neil Morrissey, actor, 52; Doddie Weir, rugby player and commentator, 44; René Arnoux, French racing driver, 65; Mark Davis, English golfer, 51; David “Kid” Jensen, Danish Canadian-born British television presenter and radio broadcaster, 64; Prince Michael of Kent, 72 Henri Leconte, French tennis player, 51; Ute Lemper, German chanteuse, 51; Gina Lollobrigida, Italian actress, 87; Jenny Seagrove, British actress, 57; Colin Welland, British actor and playwright, 80.
Births: 1790 Sir George Everest, surveyor-general of India after whom mountain was named; 1845 Thomas Barnardo, founder of homes for destitute children; 1872 Calvin Coolidge, 30th United States president; 1898 Gertrude Lawrence, actress.
Deaths: 1761 Samuel Richardson, novelist; 1826 Thomas Jefferson, 3rd United States president;
1831 James Monroe, 5th US president; 1881 William H Bonney, outlaw “Billy the Kid”; 1934 Marie Curie, discoverer of radium; 2008 Sir Charles Wheeler, journalist; 2012 Eric Sykes CBE, British comedian.