EVENTS, birthdays and anniversaries on March 12.
1832: Ballet tutus were worn for the first time for a performance of Les Sylphides at the Paris Opera. Displaying not only the ankles of the dancers, but also their arms, they were considered by many to be outrageous.
1848: Revolution broke out in Vienna with university demonstrations.
1854: Britain and France concluded alliance with Turkey against Russia.
1867: Napoleon III withdrew French support from Maximilian of Mexico.
1868: Britain annexed Basutoland, South Africa.
1889: England beat South Africa by eight wickets in the first cricket Test Match between the two countries, at Port Elizabeth.
1904: The first mainland electric train left Liverpool for Southport.
1917: Key event of the Russian Revolution as soldiers of the Volynsky Regiment refused to fire on demonstrators and instead beat to death their commanding officer, Captain Laskevitch.
1930: Mahatma Gandhi opened civil disobedience campaign in India against its British rulers. His 240-mile march to the sea was in protest against the British monopoly on the production and sale of salt.
1935: A 30-mile speed limit was imposed on roads in built-up areas in Britain.
1945: Vienna Opera House was destroyed by bombing.
1951: Alleged Soviet spy Alger Hiss lost his appeal in the United States Supreme Court against a conviction for perjury. He received two concurrent five-year sentences, of which he eventually served 44 months. Doubts remain over his guilt or innocence
1966: General Suharto was sworn in as acting president of Indonesia after president Sukarno was stripped of authority.
1968: Island of Mauritius in Indian Ocean, a British colony since 1810, became independent member of Commonwealth.
1984: First day of miners’ strike against pit closures.
1987: New South Wales Supreme Court rejected British Government application for injunction banning Spycatcher, memoirs of former MI5 officer Peter Wright.
1987: Government gave go-ahead for building of Sizewell “B” PWR nuclear power station in Suffolk.
1988: South African government banned church-led opposition group headed by Archbishop Desmond Tutu as threat to public safety.
1990: Poll tax demonstrations continued. In Islington, London, 20 people were arrested when police were pelted with bottles and cans.
1993: At least 200 people were killed and more than 1,100 injured in chain of car bomb explosions in Bombay.
1993: Eldorado, the much-criticised BBC television soap opera set in Spain, was scrapped.
1994: The Church of England ordained its first female priests.
1999: Former Warsaw Pact members the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland joined Nato.
2004: The President of South Korea, Roh Moo-hyun, was impeached by its national assembly: the first such impeachment in the nation’s history.
2009: Financier Bernard Madoff pleaded guilty in New York to scamming $18 billion, the largest in Wall Street history.
2011: A reactor at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant melted and exploded and releases radioactivity into the atmosphere a day after Japan’s earthquake.
Liza Minnelli, actress and singer, 69; Edward Albee, dramatist, 87; Baroness Bottomley of Nettlestone, MP, health secretary 1992-5, 67; Julia Campbell actress, 53; Graham Coxon, guitarist (Blur), 46; Aaron Eckhart, actor, 47; Eva Herzigova, model and actress, 42; Al Jarreau, jazz singer, 75; Anish Kapoor CBE, artist and sculptor, 61; Jerry Levine, actor, 58; David Mellor, MP 1979-97 and radio presenter, 66; David Mlinaric CBE, interior designer, 76; Andy Nicol, rugby player and commentator, 44; Alan Sneddon, Scottish footballer, 57; Gudrun Ure, Campsie-born actress, 89; Courtney Vance, actor, 55; Paul Way, English golfer, 52.
Births: 1710 Thomas Arne, composer (Rule Britannia); 1863 Gabriele D’Annunzio, poet, dramatist, soldier and nationalist; 1881 Kemal Atatürk, Turkish general and president; 1890 Vaslav Nijinsky, ballet dancer and choreographer; 1912 Kylie Tennant, novelist; 1914 Peter Roth, co-founder Camphill Community; 1917 Googie Withers CBE, actress; 1922 Jack Kerouac, novelist; 1938 Lord Hogg of Cumbernauld, MP 1979-97, Lord High Commissioner, General Assembly of the Church of Scotland 1998 and 1999.
Deaths: 1628 John Bull, organist and composer of God Save The King; 1924 Comte de Chardonnet, pioneer of rayon; 1950 Heinrich Mann, novelist; 1955 Charlie Parker, saxophonist; 1984 Arnold Ridley, playwright and actor (Dad’s Army); 1999 Lord (Yehudi) Menuhin, violinist and conductor.