Events, birthdays and anniversaries for 4 October
National day of Lesotho
1853: Turkey declared war on Russia, starting the Crimean War.
1865: Napoleon III and Otto von Bismarck met at Biarritz, where Napoleon III agreed to Prussian supremacy in Germany and to a united Italy.
1883: The Boys’ Brigade was founded in Glasgow, by Sir William Alexander Smith.
1916: Six-hundred French soldiers died when the cruiser Callia was torpedoed in Mediterranean.
1930: Brazilian revolution, with Getulio Vargas becoming president.
1952: The first external pacemaker, developed by Dr Paul Zoll of Harvard Medical School, was fitted to David Schwartz to control his heartbeats. The first internal pacemaker was fitted six years later.
1957: Soviet Union put the first spacecraft, Sputnik I, into orbit around Earth.
1959: Soviet spacecraft Lunik III sent back first close-up pictures of the Moon.
1969: China announced two nuclear weapons tests, including hydrogen bomb explosion in atmosphere.
1973: Peace talks began in Northern Ireland in attempt to end five years of conflict that had taken almost 900 lives.
1983: Richard Noble made the fastest official land-speed mile over Black Rock Desert, Nevada, with his Rolls-Royce Avon 302 jet-powered Thrust 2, at 633.468mph.
1992: Two nine-storey flats were demolished in Amsterdam when an El Al Boeing 747 cargo crashed, with two engines on fire, soon after leaving Schiphol Airport, killing 50 people.
1993: The hardline rebellion against Boris Yeltsin was crushed as Russian parliament leaders surrendered to troops loyal to the president.
1994: At the Labour Party conference in Blackpool, leader Tony Blair proposed ditching Clause 4, the party’s commitment to common ownership.
1996: The Ministry of Defence admitted some British troops who served in the Gulf campaign might have been poisoned by pesticides.
2008: OJ Simpson, the former American football star and actor, was found guilty of 12 charges of armed robbery, conspiracy to kidnap and assault with a deadly weapon after being accused of robbing two dealers of sports memorabilia in 2007.
Susan Sarandon, actress, 67; Jackie Collins OBE, novelist, 76; Sir Terence Conran, industrialist and designer, 82; Sarah Lancashire, actress, 49; Chris Lowe, musician (Pet Shop Boys), 54; Baron (John) McFall of Alcluith, Labour politician 1987-2010, 69; Tony Meo, snooker player, 54; Yvonne Murray, athlete, 49; Anneka Rice, TV presenter, 55; John Rutherford, rugby player and coach, 58; James Sillars, management consultant, MP 1970-9 and 1988-92, 76.
Births: 1626 Richard Cromwell, son of Oliver, Lord Protector 1658-59; 1814 Jean-François Millet, painter; 1860 Sidney Paget, Sherlock Holmes illustrator; 1884 Damon Runyon, author; 1896 Buster Keaton, silent film actor; 1923 Charlton Heston, actor; 1931 Basil D’Oliveira CBE, cricketer.
Deaths: 1669 Rembrandt, painter; 1785 Alexander Runciman, painter; 1821 John Rennie, civil engineer and bridge designer; 1859 Karl Baedeker, guidebook publisher; 1911 Dr Joseph Bell, Edinburgh surgeon and prototype for Sherlock Holmes; 1970 Janis Joplin, singer; 2010 Sir Norman Wisdom OBE, actor.